New Testament History

Israel

Babylonian Captivity

587 B.C.E. - 538 B.C.E.

Solomon's Temple is destroyed by Babylonians

587 B.C.E.

Persian Rule

539 B.C.E. - 332 B.C.E.

Jews return from Babylon and rebuild Temple

520 B.C.E. - 515 B.C.E.

Temple in Jerusalem is rededicated

515 B.C.E.

Antiochus IV Epiphanes forbids Torah observance

168 B.C.E. - 164 B.C.E.

Antiochus erects an altar to Zeus in the Jerusalem Temple.

Maccabean Revolt

168 B.C.E. - 164 B.C.E.

Jewish War for Freedom

164 B.C.E. - 142 B.C.E.

Jerusalem Temple Recaptured by Maccabeans

164 B.C.E.

Hasmonean Dynasty

142 B.C.E. - 63 B.C.E.

Flourishing of Essene Sect of Judaism

140 B.C.E. - 68 C.E.

General Pompey annexes Palestine and installs John Hyrcanus II as "Ethnarch"

63 B.C.E.

Reign of John Hyrcanus II as "Ethnarch"

63 B.C.E. - 40 B.C.E.

Subject to Rome

John Hyrcanus II enlists Rome's aid in his fight for the throne

63 B.C.E.

Effectively ends national autonomy.

Herod as Governor of Galilee

47 B.C.E. - 40 B.C.E.

Also known as Herod the Great, son of Antipater. The Herods forged strong links in Rome.

Reign of Herod the Great as King of Judea

40 B.C.E. - 4 B.C.E.

Roman Senate appoints Herod King of Judea

40 B.C.E.

Herod has to recapture his own kingdom in order to rule.

Herod Captures Jerusalem

37 B.C.E.

Construction of Herod's Temple in Jerusalem begins

20 B.C.E.

Reign of Herod Phillip north and east of Galilee

4 B.C.E. - 34 C.E.

Reign of Herod Antipas in Galilee and Perea

4 B.C.E. - 39 C.E.

Reign of Herod Archelaus in Judea, Samaria, and Idumea

4 B.C.E. - 6 C.E.

Herod Archelaus removed from throne for incompetence

6 C.E.

Rome decided to rule the area directly through prefects/procurators.

Pontius Pilate governs Judea as prefect of Rome

26 C.E. - 36 C.E.

Reign of Herod Agrippa I as King of Judea and Samaria

41 C.E. - 44 C.E.

Emperor Claudius appoints Herod Agrippa I King of Judea

41 C.E.

Construction of Herod's Temple in Jerusalem Complete

62 C.E.

Jewish War (against Rome)

66 C.E. - 73 C.E.

Romans Destroy the Temple

70 C.E.

Council of Jamnia

90 C.E.

Second Jewish Revolt (Bar Kochba Rebellion)

132 C.E. - 135 C.E.

Second Roman Destruction of Jerusalem and Temple

135 C.E.

Jews forbidden to enter Jerusalem

135 C.E

Greece and Rome

Reign of Alexander the Great

336 B.C.E. - 323 B.C.E.

Ptolemaic Dynasty

323 B.C.E. - 197 B.C.E.

Successors of Alexander the Great. Included control of Palestine. Many Jews accepted a Hellenistic lifestyle during this dynasty.

Seleucid Dynasty seizes Ptolemaic power over Palestine

200 B.C.E. - 197 B.C.E.

Seleucid Dynasty

197 B.C.E. - 142 B.C.E.

Reign of Augustus Caesar

30 B.C.E. - 14 C.E.

Reign of Tiberius Caesar

14 C.E. - 37 C.E.

Reign of Caligula

37 C.E. - 41 C.E.

Reign of Claudius

41 C.E. - 54 C.E.

Claudius expels all Jews from Rome

49 C.E.

Reign of Nero

54 C.E. - 68 C.E.

Nero blames Christians for the Great Fire of Rome

64 C.E.

Christians are persecuted even worse as a result.

Year of the Four Emperors

68 C.E. - 69 C.E.

Galba, Otho, Vitellius began and ended their reigns with remarkably quick succession. Vespasian was the fourth emperor of that year, and he lasted.

Reign of Vespasian

69 C.E. - 79 C.E.

Reign of Titus

79 C.E. - 81 C.E.

Reign of Domitian

81 C.E. - 96 C.E.

Reign of Nerva

96 C.E. - 98 C.E.

Reign of Trajan

98 C.E. - 117 C.E.

Reign of Hadrian

117 C.E. - 138 C.E.

Reign of Antoninus Pius

138 C.E. - 161 C.E.

Reign of Marcus Aurelius

161 C.E. - 180 C.E.

Reign of Commodus

180 C.E. - 192 C.E.

Reign of Diocletian

284 C.E. - 305 C.E.

Reign of Constantine

306 C.E. - 337 C.E.

Edict of Milan

313 C.E.

An edict of toleration issued by Constantine.

Biblical/Christian Events

Birth of Jesus

6 B.C.E. - 4 B.C.E.

Ministry and Death of Historical Jesus

30 C.E. - 33 C.E.

Paul's Damascus Road Experience

32 C.E. - 34 C.E.

The turning point in Saul of Tarsus' life when he met the Risen Jesus.

Paul's First Post-Conversion Visit to Jerusalem

35 C.E.

Jerusalem Conference

49 C.E.

Church leaders met to debate whether Gentiles should have to observe Torah regulations.

Paul's Corinthian Mission

51 C.E. - 53 C.E.

Martyrdom of James, the Lord's Brother

62 C.E.

Martyrdom of Peter and Paul

64 C.E. - 65 C.E.

According to tradition

Christians expelled from Jewish synagogues

90 C.E.

Marcion excommunicated for heresy

140 C.E.

Muratorian Canon

200 C.E.

Great Persecution by Diocletian

303 C.E. - 305 C.E.

Christianity becomes a state religion of Rome

312 C.E. - 313 C.E.

Athanasius of Alexandria publishes a Christian canon of the Bible

367 C.E.

Books of the Bible

Book of Daniel

165 B.C.E.

I & II Thessalonians

50 C.E.

II Thessalonians is very disputed.

I & II Corinthians

54 C.E. - 55 C.E.

Romans

56 C.E. - 57 C.E.

Galatians

56 C.E.

Phillipians

61 C.E.

Colossians

61 C.E.

Very disputed authorship and dating.

Philemon

62 C.E.

Gospel of Mark

66 C.E. - 70 C.E.

Gospel of Matthew

80 C.E. - 85 C.E.

Hebrews, I Peter, Ephesians, James

85 C.E. - 95 C.E.

Luke-Acts

85 C.E. - 90 C.E.

Gospel of John

90 C.E. - 95 C.E.

Revelation

95 C.E.

I, II, & III John

95 C.E. - 100 C.E.

I & II Timothy, Titus

110 C.E. - 130 C.E.

Jude, II Peter

130 C.E. - 150 C.E.