History of DNA Timeline By:Branden Dyer 2A

.

Gregor Mendel (1856-1863)

1856 - 1863

The genetic experiments Mendel did with pea plants took him eight years . During this time, Mendel grew over 10,000 pea plants, keeping track of progeny number and type. ("Genome news network," )

Johann Friedrich Miescher (1873)

1873

Isolated the first crude preparation of DNA, he just didn’t know it. He named it nuclein.("Interactive dna," 2012)

Oswald Avery (1893)

1893

Showed that Fred Griffith’s “transforming principle" was DNA. (“Interactive dna,” 2012)

Sir William Henry Bragg (1912)

1912

Discover that they can deduce the atomic structure of crystals from their X-ray diffraction patterns. This scientiFic tool will be key in helping Watson and Crick determine DNA's structure. ("Interactive dna," 2012)

Fredrick Griffith (1928)

1928

discovers that genetic information can be transferred from heat-killed bacteria cells to live ones. This phenomenon, called transformation, provides the first evidence that the genetic material is a heat-stable chemical. ("Hhmi," 2003)

Rosalind Franklin (1947)

1947

Rosalind Franklin produced the X-ray crystallography pictures of DNA which Watson and Crick used to determine the structure of double-stranded DNA.("Hhmi," 2003)

Erwin Chargaff (1949)

1949

He found that the amount of DNA and its nitrogenous bases varies from one species to another. Also Chargaff found that the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine equals the amount of cytosine in DNA from every species.("Hhmi," 2003)

Marice Wilkins (1950)

1950

Had a great contribution to the discovery of the structure of DNA. ("Hhmi," 2003)

James Watson and Francis Crick (1953)

1953

James Watson and Francis Crick changed the look at DNA by coming up with the structure for DNA (double helix) ("Hhmi," 2003)

1961

1961

Marshall Nirenberg-cracks the genetic code
The basic chemical pathways by which DNA directs synthesis of proteins were clarified by about 1960.(Hales, 2009)

1967

1967

Mary Weiss and Howard Green employ somatic cell hybridization to advance human gene mapping.(Hales, 2009)

1977-79

1977 - 1979

Scientists at genentech the worlds frist genetic enginer company, were the first to genetically modify and produce the human hormone somatostatin. (Hales, 2009)

1986

1986

PCR is developed by Kary Mullis. (Hales, 2009)

1990's

1990 - 1999

DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy, and genetically modified foods come onto the scene.(Hales, 2009)

1996

1996

The first cloning of a mammal (Dolly the sheep) is performed by Ian Wilmut and colleagues, from the Roslin institute in Scotland.
(Hales, 2009)

1996

1996

Hundreds of scientists sequence yeast,In April 1996, some 600 scientists around the world finished sequencing the genome of baker’s yeast.(Hales, 2009)

2001

2001

The sequence of the human genome is released, and the "post-genomic era" officially begins. (Hales, 2009)

2002

2002

The mouse genome,Public and private efforts to sequence the mouse genome.(Hales, 2009)

2003

2003

Human genome complete. ("Interactive dna," 2012)

Bibliography

2013

Access excellence. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/WYW/wkbooks/SFTS/sidebarmilestone.php

Hhmi. (2003). Retrieved from http://www.dnai.org/timeline/

Genome news network. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/resources/timeline/1953_Crick_Watson.php

Interactive dna. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.learner.org/interactives/dna/history.html
Hales, K. (2009, August 27). Davidson. Retrieved from http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kahales/301Genetics/timeline.html