During the 1870's and '80's, nations began making their naval vessels out of steel. They ran on coal. it was very important for a world power to have coaling stations around the world.
in 1893 planters in hawaii revolted against the royal gov't there. the planters asked for annexation which occured in 1898. just like california and texas, hawaii played the same game. The US felt pressure to annex Hawaii because GB was very interested in proclaiming a protectorate over hawaii so they could make it a british possession.
in 1895, japan attacked china. they won the war and took formosa and korea from china.
Roosevelt ordered commodore George Dewey to attack the Spanish outpost in manila if war broke out. the american navy in the pacific had to get coal. american had no coaling stations in the pacific. the US pacific fleet anchored at Hong Kong, a British possession where they refueled. when war broke out, the american fleet attacked and destroyed the Spanish fleet at manila. the capture at manila was aided by the local revolution Emilio Aguinaldo. Roosevelt resigned from the gov't and formed a Calvary regiment called the rough riders. they saw action in cuba. the rough riders captured san juan hill overlooking Santiago harbor where a Spanish fleet was anchored. waiting outside the harbor is an american fleet that will destroy the Spanish fleet. many more Americans died from tropical diseases than bullet wounds. the war ended in 4 months.
1898 the battle ship USS Maine was sent to Havana harbor. it was there to protect american interests. This is known as **gunboat diplomacy. ** in Feb. the USS Maine blew up in Havana Harbor. The american yellow press journalists immediately blamed Spain. Hurst and Pulitzer published pictures of the Spanish mine. The USS Maine exploded due to a build up in gas. McKinley asked for a war declaration and congress agreed and further congress passed which something the something of the annexation of Cuba something.
Reform efforts began like social security to help immigrants and to prevent slums, Big Bosses, corruption in gov't, et cetera..
Anti Foreign resentment in China exploded in the BOXER REBELLION of 1900. The "Boxers" were a secret society and their name literally translated meant "sons of the righteous fists". Since prize fighting was a popular sport in the west, their name was translated to boxers. All of the major European powers plus the US and Japan sent troops to quell the boxer rebellion. Russia sent about 100k troops into maincherio. They occupied port arthur. Japan immediately began preparing for war.
In septemeber 1901, McKinley was assassinated.
The new lands act of 1902 started the massive damning of western rivers and associated irrigation projects. Roosevelt wanted to conserve but use the environment. He started our national parks system. In stark contrast to roosevelt john muir, as an environmentalist, wanted to protect and not use the environment.
the french in 1903 began working on the canal. The french effort was plagued by difficult construction and yellow fevor. France was willing to sell their rights to the canal to the US. Panama was a province of columbia and columbia did not accept the american proposal to build a canal across its territory. Roosevelt moved rapidly to recognize panamainian independence when panama revolted against columbia. The US recognized Panama and pledged to defend its sovreignty and columbia could not prevent this.
Roosevelt took action to protect consumers in 1906 through passage of the meat inspection act and the pure food and drug act. This resulted in directly from an expose of the meat packing industry called the Jungle written by novelist Upton Sinclair. This book told in graphic detail what goes into meat at meat packing plants.
1908 Supreme Court case of Muller vs. Oregon stated that "awomen's peculiar structure" requires protection.
in the election of 1908, socialist Eugene debs, held nearly half a million votes because of wide popularity in Europe as an alternative to the excesses of free market capitalism
Women began demanding reform especially after the 1911 fire at the triangle shirtwaist company.
Woodrow Wilson was nominated by the democrat party to run against Taft, the Republican Party nominee. Roosevelt formed his own third party called the progressive or "Bull Moose" party. In this election, people were offered the choice between two varieties of progressiveness. There were several diff. between Roosevelt's progressiveness and Wilson's progressiveness.
Wilson won the 1912 election with 41% of the popular vote. The republicans took the other 59% but split it between Roosevelt and Taft.
Wilson bought the Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1913 which stopped Germany from buying these islands.
in 1913, the federal reserve act created the federal reserve banking system. It replaced the national bank that jackson killed in 1836.
Congress Passed the warehouse act in 1913. This act authorized loans on the security o stable crops.
politically social reformers sought to give to the people. Many states today live with progressive institutions such as the initiative which allows citizens to put interests on ballots. The referendum which allows citizens to vote on things passed the legislature. and the recall which allows citizens to allow elected officials to be removed from office. U.S. senators who had previously been elected by state electors were now subject to direct election by the people as a result to the 17th amendment passed in 1913
in 1914, congress passed the Clayton Act. It created the federal trade commision, and added to the list of activities that monopolies could not participate in. This strengthened the sherman anti-trust act.
in 1914, an incident occurred between the Mexican police and a detachment of US sailors at Vera Cruz. US forces had gone ashore to retrieve mail for their ship. Mexican authorities refused and returned the american sailors to their ship. This caused an international disagreement between the US and Mexico.
America completes the Panama Canal in 1914.
In 1915, Wilson sent marines to Nicaragua to restore order because of Nicaragua's financial problems.
The federal farm loan act of 1916 made credit available to farmers at low rates.
roosevelt refused to run in 1916. this killed the progressive party. wilson defeated the republican candidate, former New York govenor, charles evans hughes. wilson ran on a slogan "he kept us out of war." wilson was still a progressive but he was the last leader of the progressive era.
In 1916, Mexican General Poncho Villa attacked the US border town of US New Mexico, killing 19 Americans. Poncho Villa hoped to spark a war between the US and Mexico which would serve as a rallying point for his revolutionary army. The US responded with a military expedition into mexico in 1916 led by US general Pershing. Pershing's nickname was black jack because his absolute favorite military unit that he relied on the most was the 10th US Calvary.
french army crushed in 3 battles. french emperor captured by prussians. prussia proclaims german empire at versailles. germany takes 2 provinces, alsace and lorraine. the french are to be hit with a $7 billion bill. this will fill the french with an overwhelming desire for revenge. they will become germany's permanent enemy.
by 1914 europe is divided into two armed camps. the central powers, consisting of germany, austria, and italy. and against the allies, russia, france and later GB.
the event that started WWi in august 1914 was when two months earlier, franz ferdinand was assassinated in Srejevo bosnia. he was killed by a serve nationalist because he favored including the slovic people living in the austrian empire into the gov't with the austrians and the hungarians.
austria declared war on serbia. russia mobilize their army and declared war on austria. germany backing her allie austria declared war on russia. france declared war on germany, backing her allie russia up. GB faced a dilema. they didnt have an alliance with france and russia.
in 1915 when the germans sank the passenger lusitania. it was hit and sank in 18 min. 1128 causualties.
In the summer of 1916, the british began drafting soldiers. They drafted 1 million fresh troops. They massed their army at the Somme river. The british chose to attack the most heavily fortified zone in the world. On the first day, the british took 60k casualties. By the time the somme offensive ended, britian had lost 1 million soldiers.
In 1917, French troops are commanded by general Nivelle who launches an offensive which fails. After the "nivelle offensive", french troops mutinied. Entire provisions refused to fight. The ring leaders of the mutiny were rounded up and executed. French units that refused to stop the mutiny were shelled out of existense by ally artillery. The french army would never fully recover from this. The french will not take the offensive again and neither will the british.
In feb 1917, the battle began and it went on for several months of french rallying cry was "they shall not pass." The hero of the battle of verdun, a french fortress, was named henri petain because he stopped german advance and both sides lose 800k together.
October 1917, Bulsoviks seize power.