The Treaty of Paris, ending the Spanish-American War, Spain ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the United States. The relation ship changed with the Caribbean due to the US transforming from an industrial power to an imperial one. Private investors helped the US influence in the Caribbean and founding the United Fruit Company. Private enterprises in the US overseas was not uncommon (Civil War times) The Spanish-American War brought the Washington into an imperial role in the Caribbean and had many military interventions, completing massive construction of the Panama Canal. US President at the time, William McKinley, intervened in the Spain and Cuban nationalist war, helping the Cubans. Spain transformed the US into a two-ocean empire. Additionally occupying Cuba, Washington annexed Puerto Rico and Hawaii, seizing the control of Guam and the Philippines. The "Teller Amendment" renounced the annexation of Cuba and American officials forced the Cubans to be protected and be under our control in 1902, which granted Washington the rights to the Guantanamo Bay naval base. And in 1901, the US establish formal rule to Puerto Rico. The Supreme Court ruled in 1901 that the island was "unincorporated territory" meaning a colony with no path to statehood.
Philippine American War
1898 - 1902
The Filipino general, Emilio Aguinaldo, announced independence and established Asia's first republic. This put pressure on US President, William McKinley, to annex the Philippines. On February 4th, 1899, brutal fighting against the American and Filipino soldiers emerged. America hoped for a short conflict but more than 700,000 soldiers fought. An American occupation of Manila brought the war against Spain in the Philippines to an end, easing the American win due to their superiority of their arms. The US was not Spain's only enemy in the islands, a revolt against Spanish rule began in 1896, Spain was given priority to holding Cuba and devoted its resources to suppressing the Philippines, helping the US. General Dewey, American Admiral of the Navy, had allowed Aguinaldo to come back to the islands after fleeting to Hong Kong. Filipino forces then ended Spanish authority, leaving Manila to be taken. Americans realized that Spain could no longer send assistance, the Spanish in Manila knew they could not fight against Dewey (The American Army). American Army took over the south of the city, ultimately taking Manila. The Filipino army was unable to defeat the US in conventional warfare so they adopted guerrilla tactics. Aguinaldo had determination and wanted to be independent, but the United States purchased Philippines from Spain in the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish-American War, making this war inevitable.
Spanish American War
Cubans were fighting against Spain for independence. The Newspaper publishers like Joseph Pulitzer made the news of the war much larger with reporting of the savage Spanish against the Cuban rebels. There was also yellow journalism, a term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolph Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism; omissions and half-truths. On February 15th, an explosion sank the USS Maine in the Havana harbor. In the 10 days of debate, the US declared war after adopting the Teller Amendment (military presence in Cuba) and making it clear that it didn't harbor the imperialist ambitions.
Open Door Policy
1899 - 1900
President William McKinley issued the "Open Door Policy" due to the international trade with China. This policy suggested that all countries who want to extend rules over foreign nations (imperialist interest), accepting free and open trade policies in China, eventually demanding all interested parties to accept and respect Chinese territory integrity. This opened the international trade to the US not only to China, but the Far East. This ultimately lead to tension between numerous imperial powers and was a light to the fire to begin World War II.
Assassination of William McKinley
1901 - 1909
Because of the Assassination of McKinley, Roosevelt quickly jumped from Vice President to President.
Georgia Disfranchisement Amendment
1901 - 1906
After many southern states used countless tactics to disenfranchise the African American Voters, the Virginia General Assembly authorized constitutional convention to draft election reforms including poll taxes and literary tests. Giles Jackson, apart of Virginia's Negro Business League wrote this letter to the commissioner of Revenue of Virginia about the current legislation. The disfranchisement of African Americans throughout most of the South was completed with an amendment to the Georgia constitution.
National Child Labor Committee
A main issue of the Progressive Movement was the labor condition for children. Muckraking journalism (reform-minded journalists who exposed institutions and leaders as corrupt) lead to the forming of the committee in 1904. They investigated labor conditions around the nation. The first real effective labor legislation passed more than 30 years later, during the New Deal.
President Roosevelt announced the Roosevelt Corollary which extended the Monroe Doctrine (opposed European colonization) and asserted the right of the US to police the Caribbean. This was consistent with his Big Stick Diplomacy, which justified the exercising "international police power."
Start of the Great Migration
1905 - 1930
African American left in large numbers from the southern states where they were subjected to economic abuses and intimidation. They moved to the Urban North. The southern side had laws such as the Jim Crow Laws which were enforced racial segregation.
This was the exposing of inner workings of the meatpacking industry. Because this was during the progressive era, progressives work quickly and aggressively for a safer work environment. Beveridge had wanted a date to be stamped on all canned meat, but the compromise omitted any requirement for dating. Nonetheless, Beveridge and Roosevelt agreed that the compromise was better than no regulation at all. Roosevelt signed both the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act into law in 1906 (remove harmful and misrepresented foods and drugs from the market and regulate the manufacture and sale of drugs and food involved in interstate trade).