A phase of rapid standardization and industrialization. Rising steel, oil, and rail industries contrib. to America's identity as an industrial world power.
1870 - 1879
Belief by Charles Darwin that some people were inherently better than others due to evolution. Encourage US to remain racist.
Standard Oil/Horiz. Integration
Oil company founded by John D Rockefeller. Along with Carnegie, he was known as a robber Barron/captain of industry for his business success. He practiced horizontal integration, which is purchasing competing countries of the same industry.
Great Railroad Strike
After B&O(Baltimore and Ohio) Railroads refused to raise worker wages for the 3rd time in a row, workers went on strike for 59 days. This took place in other cities like NYC and Philly. Eventually, had to be suppressed by national guard. 100 people died.
Started as a peaceful rally in Haymarket Square,Chicago. Workers protested for an 8 hour work day. As the police dispersed the riot, someone threw a bomb into the crowd , killing 4 cops and 7 civilians.* anarchists were convicted of conspiracy.
An act by the US govt. designed to break up Native American tribes by offering their land to settlers for farming and pushing Native Americans to reservations. Continued American v. Indian tensions that contributed to natl. identity.
Forest Reserve Act
A law that allowed the President of the United States to set aside forest reserves from the land in the public domain. US became a nature conservationist culture.
Panic of 1893
A serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893 and ended in 1897. It deeply affected every sector of the economy, and produced political upheaval that led to the realigning election of 1896 and the presidency of William McKinley.
Plessy v Ferguson
Supreme Court Case that paradoxically allowed racial discrimination, as long as it was "separate but equal". Segregation became one of the main characteristics of American identity.
US Steel/vert. integration
A steel corporation that merged Carnegie Steel and Federal Steel.Known for their strategy of vertical integration, controlling all aspects of a company's prod.