The camera was invented, or rather, developed by multiple people, over the course of history. But the camera was invented, as we know it today, by french inventor Joseph Nicéphore Niépce in (about) 1816.
It was just one in a series of experiments, but View from the Window at Le Gras is the earliest surviving photograph. Nicéphore Niépce used a sheet of metal with a film of chemicals spread on it. Though light-sensitive, it wasn’t very sensitive. It took 8 hours to record the image. You can see sunlight illuminating both sides of the buildings. From here on, the timeline of photography moves rapidly.
America's First Exposure to Photography: The Daguerreotype Medium. Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre invented the daguerreotype in 1839. Within a few years, daguerreotype studios appeared in United States cities and the popularity of the medium grew through The 1850s.
Invention of Roll film/Kodak Camera
George Eastman invented flexible roll film and in 1888 introduced the Kodak camera shown to use this film. It took 100-exposure rolls of film that gave circular images 2 5/8" in diameter.
Polaroid/instant camera was invented
Polaroid founder Edwin Land first demonstrated the instant camera on February 21, 1947 at a meeting of the Optical Society of America in New York City. The Land camera, as it was originally known, contained a roll of positive paper with a pod of developing chemicals at the top of each frame.
First Digital Camera
Steven Sasson invented the world's first digital camera while working at Eastman Kodak in 1975. It weighed around 8 pounds (3.6kg) and shot a mere 0.01MP.
Camcorder was introduced
Sony released the first consumer camcorder in 1983, the Betamovie BMC-100P. It used a Betamax cassette and rested on the operator's shoulder, due to a design not permitting a single-handed grip.
The disposable camera was invented
The currently familiar disposable camera was developed by Fujifilm in 1986. Their Utsurun-Desu ("It takes pictures") or QuickSnap line used 35 mm film, while Eastman Kodak's 1987 Fling was based on 110 film.
The first camera phone
The first commercial camera phone was the Kyocera Visual Phone VP-210, released in Japan in May 1999. It was called a "mobile videophone" at the time, and had a 110,000-pixel front-facing camera.
The canon EOS 5D is launched
Launched in September 2005, the EOS 5D enabled advanced-amateur users to take advantage of the impressive high-image-quality performance and photographic expression unique to digital SLR cameras equipped with a 35 mm full-frame sensor, which, at the time, primarily targeted only professional-level users.