Imperial Wars and Colonial Protest

Spring Lecture Series 2013

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King George's War

1744 - 1748

James Oglethorpe in Georgia stopped Spanish Attacks
New England Colonists take Louisbourg Fort on Cape Breton Island and gain control of St Lawrence River.
Peace treaty gave back the fort, which angered the colonists.

New Englanders Capture Louisburg

1745

Albany Plan of Union

1754

Led by Ben Franklin
Goals to create: inter-colonial gov, system for recruiting troops, & taxes for an army.
Failed.

Colonial Militia led by G.W. Defeated

1754

Colonial Militia led by George Washington was defeated while trying to take Fort Duquesne.

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

AKA Seven Years War
British provoked by French forts along Ohio River Valley
Ended with the Treaty of Paris 1763.
Britain emerged as world power

British Defeated again at Four Duquese

1755

Expedition from Virginia led by General Edward Braddock ended in defeat.
More than 2000 British troops defeated by smaller force of French and Native Americanss

Failed Attempt to Capture Quebec

1756

British tried and failed to capture Quebec and control Canada

Seven Years' War Begins in Europe

1756

Same as the French and Indian War

Failed Attempt to Capture Quebec

1757

British tried and failed to capture Quebec and gain control of Canada

William Pitt new Prime Minister

1758

New British Prime Minister: William Pitt

Louisburg Captured by British (2nd Time)

1758

British Capture Quebec

1759

George III becomes King of England

1760

Proclamation of 1763

1763

Colonists not allowed to settle west of Appalachian Mts

Grenville becomes British Prime Minister

1763

Pontiac's Uprising

1763

a 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area

End of Salutary Neglect

1763

17th & early 18th centuries English government did not enforce trade laws that most harmed the colonial economy.
The purpose of salutary neglect was to ensure the loyalty of the colonists in the face of the French territorial and commercial threat in North America.
The English ceased practicing salutary neglect following British victory in the French and Indian War.

Treaty of Paris

1763

Ended the French and Indian
Britain emerged as the world’s leading colonial empire.
Her possessions stretched from India to Africa to the West Indies to North America.
The British chose to take Canada from France,
rather than the prosperous West Indian sugar islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique.

Sugar Act

1764

AKA Revenue Act of 1764

Quartering Act

1765

Colonists had to provide British soldiers with food and living quarters

"No Taxation Without Representation"

1765

-Patrick Henry

Stamp Act

1765

Created in 1765 by Lord George Grenville to raise revenue in support of the new military force. It mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of the tax on all paper documents.
This included legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, and advertisements.

Formation of the Sons of Liberty

1765

A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.

Stamp Act Congress

October 1765

Angered over the Stamp Act, representatives of nine colonial assemblies met in New York City at the Stamp Act Congress in October 1765. The colonies agreed widely on the principles that Parliament could not tax anyone outside of Great Britain and could not deny anyone of a fair trial, both of which had been dictates of the Stamp Act. The meeting marked a new level of colonial political organization.

Townshend replaces Grenville as Prime Minister

1766

Declaratory Act

1766

Townshend Acts

1767

Boston Massacre

March 1770

A riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed 5 and injured 11 people

First Committee of Correspondence organized in Boston

1772

Tea Act

1773

Boston Tea Party

December 1773

On December 16, 1773, a band of Bostonians, disguised as Indians, boarded the ships and dumped the tea into the sea.

First Contiental Congress

1774

Intolerable Acts

1774

AKA The Coercive Acts
Parliament Passes the "Intolerable Acts"
In 1774, Parliament punished the people of Massachusetts for their actions in the Boston Tea Party. Parliament passed laws, known as the Intolerable Acts, which restricted colonists' rights. The laws made restrictions on town meetings, and stated that enforcing officials who killed colonists in the line of duty would be sent to Britain for trial (where it was assumed they would be acquitted of their charges).

Fighting Begins at Lexington an Cocord

1775

Second Continental Congress

1775

Thomas Paine's Common Sense

1776

Declaration of Independence

July 1776