- Homer begins to write the Iliad and Odyssey. These epic poems become two of the most famous literary works in Greek literature.
- Democracy is introduced in Athens by Cleisthenes. He establishes a constitution and is often called the "Father of Athenian Democracy". This is one of the great accomplishments of the Greek culture.
- The Greeks fight the Persians in the Greek/Persian Wars. Two famous battles are the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC and the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC. The Greeks win and the Persians retreat.
The wars between Sparta and Athens begin. They are called the Peloponnesian Wars. The wars will last 27 years with Sparta eventually conquering Athens in 404 BC.
The famous Greek philosopher Socrates is put to death for corrupting the youth of Athens with his teachings.
Greek philosopher and student of Socrates, Plato, founds the first institution of higher learning in the western world. It's called the Academy
The great philosopher, scientist, and mathematician, Aristotle, begins to tutor Alexander (later to be called Alexander the Great).