What I learned in Social Studies


European Exploration and Settlement


Europeans didn't know anything about North America, they were more interested in the east indies.

in the 1200s Marco Polo traveled with his dad through Asia, It lasted 17 years.

He published a book called The Marvels of the World. People who read it were fascinated.

What is the meaning of social studies? (C.H.A.N.G.E.S.)


C. Civics- The study of rights and duties.
H. History- The study of people in the past and what they done.
AN. Anthropology- The study of human kind.
G. Geography- The study of the earth and its geographical features.
E. Economics-The study of producing, distributing, consuming.
S. Sociology and psychology- The study of society, and the study of the human mind.

The 5w's, primary and secondary sources


Who? who did it
What? what happened
When? when did it happened
Where? where did it happened
Why? how did it happened

Primary source is a direct link to the event that happened, such as like a document or a letter.

Secondary sources are not a direct link, but has a few steps taken away from the event. Secondary sources are textbooks,magazines, articles.

The five powerful ideas of social studies


1.commonality and diversity
2.conflict and cooperation
3.continuity and change
4.individualism and independence
5.interstion with different enviroments



Geography is location,place,human,movement,and regions.

absolute location is your exact location.
Pangaea was all the continents combined into one super

Facts of the continents


North America is the planets 3rd largest continent,and has 23 countries.It was named after Amerigo Vespucci, and during the winter is connected to Asia by the Bering straight.

South America is the worlds 4th largest continent, and has 12 countries, and 3 major territory's. It has the worlds highest waterfall and worlds largest river, and has the longest mountain range. It is also the driest place on earth. It is home of the largest rain forest the amazon rain forest. South America has the southern most city.

Europe is the 6th largest continent. It has 47 countries and at one time they ruled the rest of the world. It has been the start of both world wars.

Africa is the worlds second largest continent. It is 14% of the worlds population. Worlds longest desert and hold the record for hottest temperature in Libya 136 degrees. It has the most countries in the world. Africa has the most diamonds and gold.

Asia is the largest continent in the world, and most popular continent. Has the most diverse and ethnic roots. Makes up 8.7% of earths total surface area. It contains the worlds biggest nation china. Has the highest point on earth,and is the only continent where tigers are found in the wild.

Oceania is the smallest continent, and has the most diverse areas in the continent. It has the fewest countries which is Australia, New Zealand, and Papa New Guinea. Oceania has the most sheep, and only continent in the southern and eastern hemisphere.

Antarctica is the only continent with only one country, and takes up 8.9% of the land area. 98% of it is solid ice,and considered a continent in 1840. The continent is the coldest and most windiest. The coldest temperature was -129.3 degrees, and has winds up to 200 mph. Only continent without human.

The 5 regions in the U.S.


The northeast
The southeast
The Midwest
The southwest
The west
A region is area of land with geographic, political,and cultural characteristics.

December 7,1787
water beach
First state
Motto:Liberty and independence
3 counties

George bush from there
center of family guy
Yale university

Motto:I lead
The pine tree state
whoopi pie
16 counties

Rhode island
the ocean state
brown university
5 counties

new York
empire state
motto: excelsior
62 counties

The green mountain state
motto:freedom and unity
14 counties
two presidents

motto:by the sword we seek peace,but peace only under unity
14 counties
the bay state
Harvard university
mitt Romney

The keystone state
motto:virtue,liberty,and independence
67 counties
little league baseball

The granite state
motto: live free or die
new Hampshire

new jersey
the garden state
motto: liberty and prosperity

Old Line state
motto:strong deeds, gentle words
23 counties
The northeast region

the west region and Midwest region


A Lot of wheat
motto:it is forever
44 counties

motto: equality
23 counties
least populated

motto:gold and silver
56 counties
glacier national park

the beehive state
29 counties
salt lake city

rocky mountains
63 counties
continental divide

the evergreen state
only state with a president on flag
Microsoft headquarters
Starbucks headquarters
space unit

the beaver state
alot forming
coast line

The golden state
most populous state
biggest zoo in he country
San Diego zoo

volcano last erupted in country
became a state in 1959

The silver state
little white chapel
Las Vegas

Aloha state
motto:the life of the state is perpetrated
50 counties
pearl harbor

Southwest region

motto:labor conquer all things
flower mistletoe

song Texas, our Texas
254 counties

color is blue and old gold
Arizona trout
song: Arizona

New Mexico
motto: It grows as it goes
song:O Fair new Mexico
state animal Black bear

The south west region


West Virginia
The mountain state
motto:mountaineers are always free
Alot of coal in state
Hatfield and McCoy

The yellowhammer state
motto:we dare defend our rights

South Carolina

The bluegrass state
motto: united we stand, divided we fall
horse race

The natural state
motto: the people rule
little rock 9
bill Clinton

The volunteer state
Martin Luther king assassination
smokey mountains

North Carolina
The tar heel state
motto:to be rather than to seem
famous beaches
famous university

the peach state
motto: wisdom,justice,and moderation
CNN center

home of 8 presidents
alot of beaches
old dimion state

The magnolia state
many civil war battles
alot of plantation

The sunshine state
five different ruled the countries oranges

the pelecon state
alot of hurricanes

the Midwest state


the great lakes state
motto:It you seek a pleasant
Henry ford born
alot of lighthouses

North Dakota
alot of mosses
flat land
sunflower state

The hawk-eye state
motto:Our liberties we prize and our rights we will maintain
alot of corn

The prairie state
navy river
president Reagan was born
most trains go through

Hoosier state
motto:the crossroads of america
very small town
university of Noter dame
famous NASCAR race

The corn husker state
motto:the crossroads of america
flat land
alot of tornadoes

South Dakota
the Mount Rushmore
motto: under god the people rule
dust bowl
rocky mountains

motto:to the starts through difficulty
song:home on the range
alot of buffalo
issue of slavery
brown vs. board of education

state sport is hockey
land of 10,000 lakes
mall of america

the show me state
motto:welfare of the people shall be the supreme law
president Truman
gateway arch

The badger state
state art museum
republican started
state animal cow
alot of cheese

the buckeye state
motto:with god,all things are possible
west side market
lay bug
tomato juice
white tailed deer
only flag without a square

The beginning of America


People started migrating from the Asia started walking across the land bridge called Beringia. Most People were nomadic tribes that followed animals.

There was an Ice Age 30,000 thousand years ago. An Ice Age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of the earths surface and atmosphere.

most of the earth was covered in sheets of ice and glaciers a mile thick.

level in the oceans dropped 200 feet, which exposes more land. The land bridge Beringia appeared connecting america and Asia. The mammoths and other animals caused he hunters to move with them and started spreading out. 16000-20000 years ago they started moving to america. 10,000 years ago the earth started to warm. This is when they started to move through north and south america.

Native Americans


When the Native Americans started to follow these animals they had to make some changes in there lifestyle, because the mammoths died off.

they started hunting fish, and eat other small animals and edible plants. they started to adapt to their environment.

over the years the native Americans developed cultural regions.

European Exploration and Settlement


Europe in the 1400's was time of great change, because of rediscovered writings of Greece and Rome. This inspired interest in art.

It was the period of Renaissance which meant rebirth.
1450, a German inventor Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press, which allows it easier to sell books.

European Exploration and Settlement


Christopher Columbus was one of the people that were inspired. He studied maps of the world, but was terrible at it. He wanted to sail to the east indies,but he didn't have any money or funding to go.

Kin Ferdinand and Queen Isabella were the ones that funded that trip.

1492 is when Christopher Columbus sails over to the west on the Nina, Santa Maria, and the Pinta.

Columbus and his crew finally see land. He landed on a island called San Salvador.

He started making trips back and each time he found more land. He claimed all of the land for Europe thinking he was in Asia.

1507 America is on the map.

The Colombian Exchange


The Europeans started having voyages across the Atlantic Ocean.
people,plants,and goods.
New crops and that improved the diets of the European

The Native Americans suffered, because they brought dangerous diseases 90% of them were wiped out.

Slavery Appears


Due to the death of the Native Americans, they started to turn to the Africans for slaves. Slavery is the treatment of people as property for the purpose of forcing them to do labor. People who are denied freedom in this way are called slaves and are said to be enslaved.

Late 1400's, European explores in west Africa were trading guns and other goods fro Africans.

Late 1500's, European slave traders began shipping slaves to the Caribbean fro sale.

over 300 years millions of Africans would be carried across the Atlantic.

voyages lasted weeks to months.

many died because of the harsh conditions. The ones that survived were forced into a lifetime of slavery.



11,600,000 Africans traded on the triangle trade, and Ohio's population is 11,544,951.

the four continents were Africa, Europe, North America, and South america.

1450-1870 slave trade
increased 1650
peaks at 1775
decreases in 1800's
11.6 million Africans became slaves
about 34,00 voyages
about 2 million slaves died in the voyages

Spanish Conquistadors


Spain sends Conquistadors across the Atlantic.

Conquistador is a Spanish explorers especially those who conquered the native peoples of mexico and Peru. Spanish military. There mission was to create empires fro Spain.

In 1519, Here'an Cortes arrives with horses and 500 soldiers.

They heard about the powerful Aztecs that ruled over central america. they even mistook Cortes as a Aztec God, Quetzalcoatl.

1519, he arrives in Mexico.
With the help of Indians who hated the the Aztecs did a 80 day siege and conquered Tenochtitlan.

240,000 Aztecs died and 100 Spanish soldiers.
they used the destroyed city to make the new city mexico city a capital for New Spain.

Spanish Conquistadors


Francisco Pizzarro in 1532 he led an attack on the Inca Empire in Peru. they captured the leader Atahualpa, and promised to release him for gold, but they gave him gold, but killed him anyway.

Ponce de Leon had wealth but wanted more, so he heard rumors from the Indians about the "fountain of youth". He sailed and landed on a sunny peninsula on North America in April 1513. He called it La Florida "flowery".

8 years later he returned with 200 men to create a Spanish colony. the natives were already living there and fought them off with poisoned bow and arrows, and ponce De Leon died.

the "seven cities" was a myth told by the Native Americans which was a city covered in gold. As they started to spread across the land they started to spread claiming land for Spain.

In 1600's the Spanish had claimed areas Florida to California. the soldiers would live in presidios which were wall forts.

1565, Pedro menendez de Aviles sent to Florida to protect it from outsiders.

Missionaries is people who travel to different places trying to make people make covert to their religion. They did this to the Native Americans.

European Jealously


Europe watched Spain as they brought boat loads of gold and they became jealous, each year Spain got wealthier.

France gets into action by sending Jacques Cartier to look for the northwest passage, in 1534. the northwest passage was a all water route through North America. He never finds it, but settles on Canada and names it New France. he finds beaver fur which becomes the new trend in France.

1608 Samuel De Champlain sails up the Saint Lawrence River and builds a trading post called Quebec, and is used for the next 500 years. Soon Champlain made friends with the Huron Indians. the French started to learn better survival skills. Champlain help the Huron attack their enemy's the Iroquois. The diseases started to expose diseases causing them to die off.

The french started to go south. 1673 explorers father Marquette and Louis Joliet explored the great Mississippi river. They thought it was the northwest passage,but it wasn't and they left dissapointed.



Sir Walter Raleigh left England with the captains Phillip Amadas and Author Barlow to claim land for Britain. They came to the island of Roanoke, and dropped of 108 men. They came to late in the season and nearly starved, because plant any crops. Raleigh and the captains left and the colonists too, because of the lack of food.

The second attempt, John White the governor left England with about 100 people to colonize in Roanoke. John White had a granddaughter named Virginia Dare who was the first English person born. John White left to get more supplies fro the island. He went to England and was held for 3 years, because England was in a war with Spain. When he returned nobody was on the island. All there was a fence around the houses and the words "CROATOAN" on the tree.



on 1606 three ships with the captain John Smith. On May 14,1607 they settled in Virginia, Jamestown. they settled in the middle of a swamp with diseases and mosquito's. it was also in the middle of a Native American tribe. the nobility were to lazy to work so john White traded clothes and other goods with the Native Americans to get food.

Later john white was injured in a gun power incident. he had to go back to England and recover. While he was in England the Native Americans stop trading with the colonists. This allowed everyone to starve, and went to eating corpse and other animal rodents. It was called the "the starving time" and lasted 1609-1610. John Rolfe a colonists starts to discover tobacco and which brings profit to thee colony. Also John Rolfe is deeply in love with Pocahontas who was a Native American, and married her. This brings peace between the colony and tribe.

The population went from 480 people to 60 people. They boarded ships and left back to England.

Ducth Exploration


The dutch wanted to join in and wanted to come and claim land in the new world. A man named Henry Hudson claimed a river for the dutch, which is called the Hudson river. He settled in the English Territory. Peter Stuyvesant who ruled over new Netherlands and renamed it new Amsterdam. The people didn't like Peter Stuyvesant, and he was known as a calling his people "ignorant subjects." King Charles sent his brother the duke of york to conquer the dutch. In return he would receive the dutch land. The duke york conquered it, because Stuyvesant surrendered, and it was called New York.

The Salem Witch Trials


Salem was a small town in Massachusetts. Elizabeth, age 9, Abigail Williams, age 11,and, Ann Putnam,age 11, starting having "fits' which is uncontrollable tantrums. All three of the girls accused Martha Corey who was the maid of the nobility family, and they accused her of being a witch.

the first witch death was Bridget Bishop who was hanged during June.

19 people were executed, and 200 people or more were accused.

At the end it was a fungus inside of wheat and bread called Ergot. it caused uncontrollable tantrums.

The Election


There are steps and requirements to becoming a president.

Step 1:The candidate has to do speeches and debates, and announce your running for office.
must be born in U.S.A
must be at least 35 year old
must have lived in U.S.A

Step 2: Candidates organize their campaign and earn money.
people will vote and see who will represent their party.

Step 3:Primary and caucus elections are held.
The candidate choose their running mate.

Step 4: National Conventions are held

Step 5: Debates, campaigning, and raising money.

Step 6:first Tuesday November 6 voting who becomes president.

Step 7:E; electoral College
December 5th candidate must have more than 270 electoral votes.

step 8: The Inauguration day on January 21st

three branches of government


The Legislative branch is the main for the national government. The Legislative branch is the U.S. capital building. What the Legislative branch does is make and enforce laws and control government spending. In the legislative branch is the congress which is divided into two houses, the House of Representatives and the senate. The house of Representatives has 438 people and the Senate has 100 people. The house of Representative is the lower house, and the Senate is the higher house.

the executive branch is the president, vice president, and cabinet members. The executive branch pass or Vito laws. The executive branch is located in the white house.

The Judicial branch is the supreme court which is the highest court you can go up to. In the supreme court there are a total of 9 justices. There is one chief justice and 8 associate justices.

Supreme Cort Cases


Mapp vs. Ohio

Doleree mapp, Cleveland, OH

Suspected of holding a person for a bombing
Police searched her house and the police don't have a warrant and they go in anyway
They find nothing but dirty magazines
This is illegal
She's arrested
Ohio Supreme Court rules her guilty she takes it to the Supreme Court
Supreme Court rules her innocent

4th amendment: Unlawful searches and seizures

New Jersey vs. TLO
A high school student from New Jersey
Found smoking cigarettes in the bathroom
They search her purse and belongings
They find drugs, dealing drugs?
Smoking not banned yet on school ground
Technically not a school rule
Reasonable suspicion because they found her smoking
S.C. Ruled with the assistant principal

This is public vs. private property

State Government


State Government vs. Federal Government

central government: Area of government concerned with national issues. Taxation, defense, international relations, and trade.

union: Coalition/ alliance

Ohio s statehood all starts with the Ordinance of 1787 and the creation of the Northwest Territory.


Layout of the goverment
State laws

Three branches in Ohio are:


The general assembly is Ohios congress which is House of Representatives(99) senates(33)

Executive branch can execute laws an make appointments

Governor Kasich
Lt. Gover. Taylor
Cabinet memebers

Judicial branch can interpret the law and they're the Supreme Court


In Ohio we vote for all of the branches and in the federal level we only vote for the legislative and the executive. The judicial branch is appointed.

Supreme Court justices in Ohio

The History of Ohio


Ohio's state hood starts in 1787 and the creation of the Northwest territory.
Ordinance: An command a order.

The ordinance said that:
No fewer than three, or more then five, states would be formed
Admission to the Union would be available when the number of free inhabitants reached 60,000
Civil Rights and liberties be guaranteed
Education be encouraged
Slavery and involuntary servitude be prohibited.

1802, The U.S. Congress passed an enabling bill that authorized the formation of a state government in Ohio.

Chillicothe served as the temporary capital for Ohio until 1810 when the state legislative moved the capital to Zanseville.

In 1812 the Capital was moved back to Chillicothe, when the legislative was looking for a move central location within the state.

Finally in 1816, Columbus became Ohio's permanent capital.

We The people (Preamble)


We the people of the United States, in order to form a perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic ,tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Civil rights


Civil rights is the fight for freedom and equal.

It was other minorities, such as Elderly,disable,Enthetic minorities,homosexuals,women.

All of the main Civil Rights were 1950 through the 1960, it really started after the 1860s.

The Jim Crow laws is what separated people and downgraded people.
Restaurants, schools, transportation, voting rights, classrooms, juries and legislative, water fountains, railroads, bathrooms,etc.

!954 the Emmit Till event

1954 Supreme Court case Brown vs. Board of Education

1955 Rosa Parks sparks the bus boycott that last 381 days.

The SNCC which is the Student non violent coordinating committee.

In 1965 Montegemery,AL

Marches sponsored by the SCLC
Voting rights
Death of Jimmie La Jackson
This is known as Bloody Sunday-1st attempt
600 people
The news people are there and this brings sympathy and brings thousands of people there angry.

During the second attempt the governor said you cannot march here, and Martin Luther king marches to the Pettus Bridge and prays and tells everyone to walk back.

British Colonies


In the 1700s 4 empires have been competing for land France, Britain, Spain, and the Netherlands.

In 1733 the British establish the 13 colonies.

The New England colonies
The middle colonies
The southern colonies

the new England colonies were

Rhode Island
New Hampshire

The middle colonies

New York
New Jersey
The southern colonies

North Carolina
South Carolina

All of the colonies were controlled by the king of England.
Some of the colonies would governor themselves with democracy.

Democracy is controlled by the people the elect the representatives to make laws.

Social Structure


class was your place in society.

the first great awaking happened in the 1730s where people thought they left touch with their religion.
preachers started preaching and having revival meetings.

In education new England are the colonies leading the way the middle and southern colonies didn't have public schools.

50 families needed a teacher and 100 families needed a school, but schools were only 1 room children.

marriage back then was 18 and 20s, and the amount of families were

Hunted: deer, rabbit, and birds,
Raised: pigs, cattle, and chickens
Problem, no refrigerators
Meat had been salted,smoked, or pickled
Colonists used a lot of spices
Apple trees
Pumpkins, squash, sweet potatoes, turnips, carrots,
They cook there food constantly
The heat reduced the chance from spoiling
Gatherings, meetings, Sunday services
Neighborhoods cut trees
Sharing the work made it faster and more fun
Colonial toys:
Dolls, marbles, and tops,
Games: tag, blind mans buff, stoolbal
Adult games: bowling, pool, cards, animal hunts,
Fairs: dance contest, catching pig or climb a greased pig.

Lots of growth in the colonies.

We are more developed and we have a better society in the late 1700s
Cheap land
Religious freedoms
Economic opportunities, natural resources
Up until this point, Britain left the colonies to solve their on colonies, but the monarch still owns them
America was learning to govern themselves
There were 3: general assemblies, governors, councils.
Decided how to spend tax money.
The colonist had more freedom in the new world, than the people in Europe.