The American Revolution provided a model of how colonies could break with the mother country.
The French Revolution provoked great interest in Latin America.
Slaves under Overture successfully overthrew the colonial government of St. Domingue and established the independent republic of Haiti.
Portuguese royalty fled to Brazil because of a French invasion. A government in exile was set up.
A general insurrection erupted and was followed by a long guerrilla war.
Spanish-American Wars of Independence.
Rebellion in Mexico began under Hidalgo. It failed due to lack of Creole support.
Venezuela declared independence July 5, 1811 to break away from dependence of Spanish crown and establish a new nation.
Bolivar defeated Spanish forces in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador to from Gran Colombia.
A second revolutionary movement with more Creole support broke out.
The post-independence economy of Latin America remained stagnant.
Mexico declares independence. Iturbide is emperor. Mexico becomes a monarchy.
Brazil declares independence and Brazil becomes a monarchy.
The U.S. supported the independence movement through the Monroe Doctrine.
San Martin carried the revolution into the most conservative colony of Peru and defeated the Spanish forces there.
All of Spanish South America had won independence.
A conservative government under Juan Manuel de Rosas replaced the liberals.
Central American States split into independent nations and Mexico separated from Central America.
In Central America initial attempts to form a unified government gave way to individual states.
The U.S. won and forced the cession of Texas, California, and much of Mexico's territory north of the Rio Grande River.
Enhanced trade permitted greater state development such a constructions of roads and railroads.
Benito Juarez leads reform in Mexico.
Latin America economy enhancement led to liberal governments.
French overthrew the republic and placed Maximilian on the throne as emperor. However in 1867, the French withdrew and liberals returned to power under Benito Juarez.
Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay.
Fall Of Brazilian Empire. Republic was established.
U.S. got Cuba and Puerto Rico. U.S. backed Panama's independence movement in return for rights of control of the Panama canal.
Beginning of Panama canal.