14th Century


Edward II Invested as Prince of Wales


Edward I Invades Scotland


Pope Clement V Elected


Capture and Execution of William Wallace

August 1305

Capture and execution of Scottish resistance fighter William Wallace by the English on a charge of treason.

Death of Edward I

07 July 1307

Death of Edward I

Knights Templar Rounded Up and Murdered

13 October 1307

Ordered by Philip the Fair of France, with the backing of the Pope. Hastened the demise of the order within a decade. Also the origin of the reputation for "Friday the 13th" being a day of bad luck.

Coronation of Edward II

25 February 1308

Dante Publishes his Divine Comedy


Scottish Victory at Battle of Bannockburn

23 June 1314 - 24 June 1314

Robert the Bruce restores Scotland's de facto independence.

Revolt of Llywelyn Bren in south Wales

28 January 1316 - 18 March 1316

Pope John XII Elected


Llywelyn Bren Unlawfully Executed


Cardiff Castle

Edward II Victory at Battle of Boroughbridge

16 March 1322

Allowed Edward to re-establish royal authority over the barons, and hold on to power for another five years.

Edward III usurps English Throne

January 1327

Edward II is Killed

21 September 1327

Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton


The First War of Scottish Independence ends in Scottish victory with the Treaty and de jure independence,

100 Years' War Begins


England and France struggle for dominance of Western Europe. The war will span through three/four different war periods within 116 years.

Edward, the Black Prince Invested as Prince of Wales

12 May 1343

Eldest son of King Edward III of England and his wife Philippa of Hainault, as well as father to King Richard II of England.

Battle of Crecy

26 August 1346

English forces led by Edward III and Edward, the Black Prince defeat the French forces of Philip VI despite being outnumbered at least four to one, with the longbow being a major factor in favor of England. Also considered to be the beginning of the end of classic chivalry.

Black Death Arrives in England


First of many occurrences of this plague. An estimated 20% - 40% of the British population is though to have perished within the first year, and up to 50% of Europe's total population by its end.

The Black Death arrives in Carmarthen


Tennis is Invented


Invented in England

Battle of Poitiers

19 September 1356

The English capture and hold for ransom the French king and many French nobles. Warfare by armored knights with lances and swords on horseback is near its end.

Peace of Brétigny


The first phase of the Hundred Years' War ends in a tenuous treaty.

The Black Death Reappears in England


The survivors of the first wave of Black Death are better able to resist the disease than people during the first wave in 1348, and the second wave of plague is less severe than the first wave.

Joan of Kent becomes Princess of Wales

10 October 1361

Hundred Years' War Begins Again


Nobles of Gascony (south of Bordeaux) complain to the French king, Charles V, about oppressive taxation by Edward III of England. Charles confiscates English holdings. Edward III reasserts his claim to the French throne, thus beginning the War again.

Owain Lawgoch Announces Claim to Throne of Wales

May 1372

Richard II Invested as Prince of Wales

20 November 1376

Death of Edward III

21 June 1377

Richard II Coronated

16 July 1377

Western Schism


Three claimant popes were elected simultaneously. Avignon Papacy ends.

Chaucer begins to write The Canterbury Tales


Chaucer's greatest work, and one of the foundations towards the formation of the Modern English language.

First Bible Published in English


Translated by John Wycliffe.

Peasants' Revolt


Quickest-spread revolt in English history, and the most popular revolt of the Late Middle Ages.

Statute of Praemunire


A law which prohibited the assertion or maintenance of papal jurisdiction, imperial or foreign, or some other alien jurisdiction or claim of supremacy in England, against the supremacy of the monarch.

Battle of Nicopolis


The last great Crusade fails.

Richard II Abdicates to Henry IV

30 September 1399

End of the Plantagenet dynasty.

Henry IV Coronated

13 October 1399

Beginning of the Lancaster lineage of kings.

Henry V Becomes Prince of Wales

15 October 1399