Capture and execution of Scottish resistance fighter William Wallace by the English on a charge of treason.
Death of Edward I
Ordered by Philip the Fair of France, with the backing of the Pope. Hastened the demise of the order within a decade. Also the origin of the reputation for "Friday the 13th" being a day of bad luck.
Robert the Bruce restores Scotland's de facto independence.
Allowed Edward to re-establish royal authority over the barons, and hold on to power for another five years.
The First War of Scottish Independence ends in Scottish victory with the Treaty and de jure independence,
England and France struggle for dominance of Western Europe. The war will span through three/four different war periods within 116 years.
Eldest son of King Edward III of England and his wife Philippa of Hainault, as well as father to King Richard II of England.
English forces led by Edward III and Edward, the Black Prince defeat the French forces of Philip VI despite being outnumbered at least four to one, with the longbow being a major factor in favor of England. Also considered to be the beginning of the end of classic chivalry.
First of many occurrences of this plague. An estimated 20% - 40% of the British population is though to have perished within the first year, and up to 50% of Europe's total population by its end.
Invented in England
The English capture and hold for ransom the French king and many French nobles. Warfare by armored knights with lances and swords on horseback is near its end.
The first phase of the Hundred Years' War ends in a tenuous treaty.
The survivors of the first wave of Black Death are better able to resist the disease than people during the first wave in 1348, and the second wave of plague is less severe than the first wave.
Nobles of Gascony (south of Bordeaux) complain to the French king, Charles V, about oppressive taxation by Edward III of England. Charles confiscates English holdings. Edward III reasserts his claim to the French throne, thus beginning the War again.
Three claimant popes were elected simultaneously. Avignon Papacy ends.
Chaucer's greatest work, and one of the foundations towards the formation of the Modern English language.
Translated by John Wycliffe.
Quickest-spread revolt in English history, and the most popular revolt of the Late Middle Ages.
A law which prohibited the assertion or maintenance of papal jurisdiction, imperial or foreign, or some other alien jurisdiction or claim of supremacy in England, against the supremacy of the monarch.
The last great Crusade fails.
End of the Plantagenet dynasty.
Beginning of the Lancaster lineage of kings.