Asia and Africa Timeline

Asia- China

Han China

202 BC - 220 AD

Liu Bang is the emperor of the Han Dynasty. It was a time of peace and stability. They had a centralized government and were highly structured.
Civil Service System- Government jobs that civilians obtained by taking examinations
The fall of the Han- A great flood left thousands dead and millions homeless. The peasants revolted and Wang Mang was assassinated.

Sui Dynasty

581 AD - 618 AD

The Grand Canal was completed

Tang Dynasty

618 AD - 907 AD

The ruling class was wealthy and they could afford to be well educated
Fall of the Tang- Tang rulers impose large taxes and struggle to control the large empire. Chinese rebels sacked and burned the Tang capital and murdered the last Tang Emperor

Song Dynasty

960 AD - 1279 AD

They ruled Southern China
The most important inventions of the Tang and Song Dynasties are movable type and gun powder
levels of society- The Gentry were the upper class people who were well educated, the urban middle class included merchants, shopkeepers, skilled artisans, minor officials, and others, The bottom of urban society were laborers, soldiers, servants, and peasants.

Pax Mongolica

1200 AD - 1300 AD

Mongol peace. The mongols guaranteed safe passage for trade, caravans, travelers, and missionaries from one end of the empire to the other

Mongol China

1206 AD - 1370 AD

see Pax Mongolica and Yuan Dynasty

Yuan Dynasty

1279 AD - 1368 AD

Kublai Khan united China for the first time in 300 years, the control imposed by the Mongols across all of Asia opened China to greater trade and foreign contacts, and Kublai Khan tolerated Chinese culture and made few government changes

Marco Polo- Traveled the silk roads and arrived at Khan's court around 1275 and served Kublai Khan

Ming Dynasty

1364 AD - 1644 AD

Ming rulers did not allow outsiders in to threaten the peace and prosperity of China
Zheng He was a Chinese Muslim Admiral whose expeditions were remarkable for their size
only the Government could conduct foreign trade and only through 3 ports (Canton, Macao, and Ningbo)

Qing Dynasty

1644 AD - 1912 AD

The Manchus were the people of Manchuria and they invaded China, causing the Ming Dynasty to collapse

the Manchus kept China isolated

The Opium tea connection- The Europeans sold large quantities of opium to the Chinese, who used it for medical purposes, and it eventually became a highly addictive drug

Spheres of influence- A region in China where Japan and European countries owned and tried to influence China

Open Door Policy- China is allowed to trade with merchants from all countries

Opium Wars

1839

The British refused to stop selling Opium to the Chinese so they went to war and the Chinese were Defeated

Taping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

Hong Xiuquan wanted to create a heavenly 'Kingdom of Great Peace" He got together a peasant army and they conquered a lot of places in south eastern China. Internal fighting and the British, French, and attacks destroyed tapings

Dowager Empress Cixi

1862 - 1908

She was a conservative, but she allowed reforms. Factories and education were better and grew.

Asia- Japan

1.Japanese Feudalism- it was started because rich land owners ended the Heign Priod and they protected small farmers if they worked for the warriors and land owners
2.Japanese naturalistic religion- believed in shinto (respecting nature and the forces of nature) and the kami (divine nature spirits)
3.Religion brought to Japan by Korean traders- buddhism

Heian Period

794 - 1185

1.Capital?- Heilm, or modern day Kyoto
2.Had to compete with which family?- Fujiwara
3.Samurai and Bushido- samurai: body guards to the lords they served bushido: religious, brave, kind, and died honorably

Kamakura Shogun

1192 - 1333

1.What is a shogun?- a supreme general of the emperor's army
2.Economic effect of defeating the invading Mongols- they went bankrupt, causing revolts to break out

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1868

1.Daimyo- means "great name"; warrior chieftains who became lords who offered protection and land for work
2.Structure of society- feudalism
3.What European country had contact early on?- Portugal
4.Policy towards outsiders- they welcomed outsiders
5.Matthew Perry- first westerner to be received into Japanese parts, this was due to how advanced his ship was

Meji Period

1868 - 1912

1.Emperor Musuhito thought the best way to resist westernization was to- modernize
2.What European courtiers did they like?- German, Britain, and American
3.Where do they try to expand to?- Korea

Africa

  1. Major Deserts- Sahara and Kalahari 2.Importance of the Tsetse Fly- it prevents the use of livestock near the rain forest and stopped invaders from colonizing fly-infested areas 3.Animism- a religion in which spirits play an important role in regulating daily life; spirits are present in plants, animals, and other natural forces and they also take the form of ancestors 4.Importance of Griots- these storytellers kept the history and literature of Africa alive by passing stories down through each generation
  2. What religion did a lot of African leaders adopt in the 11th century?- Islam 6.What were the 2 most important trade items for the Soninke people in Ghana?- gold and salt
  3. How did Islam spread south of the Sahara?- through trade

Nok Culture

500 BC - 200 AD
  1. Where- what is now Nigeria 2.Known for their use of what resource- iron

Kingdom of Aksum

100 BC - 940 AD

1.Where is this kingdom?- on a plateau on the Red Sea, south of Kush, in modern day Eritria and Ethiopia
2.Aksum made its living off of what?- trading
3.This was the only Ancient African kingdom to develop a what?- written language
4.Decline of Aksum- to remain Christian and avoid the advancing wave of Islam, they relocated to northern Ethiopia, across the mountains and this new location caused the depletion of forests, soil erosion, and Aksum's eventual decline as a world power

Bantu Migrations

100 BC - 1500 AD
  1. What region of Africa is covered by the migrations?- the southern portion 2.What farming technique caused necessary migration?- slash and burn (burning part of the forest and mixing the ashes into the soil for a very fertile area, but the fertility is lost quickly) 3.What technology did they bring with them when they migrated?- iron-working skills

Hausa City States

1000 - 1400

1.Where are these people?- the savanna area, in what is today northern Nigeria
2.Political organization?- city states with local rulers
3. What item was traded in Zazzau?- enslaved people

Great Zimbabwe

1000 - 1450

1.Where was it?- southeastern Africa
2.What happened to it?- became the capital of a thriving state and a center of trade, but it was abandoned for no known reason

Yoruba Kingdoms

1100 - 1600

1.Where?- southern edge of the savanna, what is today Benin and southwestern Nigeria
2.Yoruba kings?- religious and political leaders for their kingdom
3.2 largest kingdoms- Ife and Oyo

Mali Empire

1235 AD - 1400 AD

1.Where was it?- South of the Sahara, off of Africa's west coast
2.What good did Mansa Musa do?- expanded the Mali Empire to twice the size of the empire of Ghana and helped make Timbuktu much more popular

Mutapa Empire

1430 - 1760

1.Where was it?- north of Great Zimbabwe
2.Who took over?- Portugal

Benin

1440 - 1897

1.What is an Oba?- kings or rulers of Benin that claimed descent from the first kings of Ife
2.Significance of Portugese trade in Benin's port at Gwatto- began European interference in Africa

Songhai

1468 AD - 1592 AD
  1. Where were these people?- to the east, at a bend in the Niger River near Gao 2.Notable leaders and why they are important- Sunni Ali:conquered a vast empire, military commander, agressive leader, captured Timbuktu, and, although it took 7 years, captured Djerne (a trade city with a university) Askia Muhammad: set up efficient tax system, chose able officials, central government, and the empire thrived under his rule.