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Start of the Ming Dynasty


Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.

Voyages of Zheng He

1405 - 1433

7 voyages by Zheng He; visited western coast of India and city-states of East Africa

Gutenberg becomes first European to use Moveable type printing


biggest factor in emergence of Renaissance and Reformation; 1445; important because of Renaissance's interest in classical texts, Humanist learning (secular, non-church sanctioned) and the Protestant Reformation (Bibles in vernacular languages)

Reign of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II

1451 - 1481

7th sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire, captured Constantinople (Istanbul) (The Byzantine Empire)

Ottomans Capture Constantinople under command of Mehmet II


The Ottomans under the driection of Mehmed II conquered the capital of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. This marked the end of the last remnant of the Roman Empire.

Reign of Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

Leader of Songhai that drove out the Berbers and built the largest empire in West Africa by his death in 1492.

Dias Rounded Cape of Good Hope


Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.

Spanish Inquisition


This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism

Columbus First Lands in Americas


Columbus' voyage to the americas in 1492 was monumental in the fact that it opened the door for transatlantical trading and the expansion of colonies in the "new world"

Beggining of Columbian Exchange


The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

Treaty of Tordesillas


Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.

Portuguese Enter the Indian Ocean

1497 - 1542

arrived in Calicut in 1498 by force, captured many ports forcefully. very strict regulations, Catholic conservatism. reactions varied: Mughals didn't resist, Ottomans had successful heavy opposition. *never gained complete control from Muslims, but did bring in profit and break Italian pepper monopoly.

Vasco De Gama Settling in Calicut


Portuguese merchants settled there, bought spices at low prices and shipped them back to Europe.

Shah Ismail founds the Safavid Empire


Founder of Safavid Empire in 1501, ruled until 1524; made Twelver Shiism the official religion of the empire and imposed it upon his Sunni subjects; his followers became known as qizilbash.

First Slaves to America


African Slaves in the New World. Spanish settlers bring slaves from Africa to Santo
Domingo (now the capital of the Dominican Republic).

Vasco De Balboa crossing isthmus of Panama to Pacific Ocean


Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean while exploring Panama

Ottomans defeat Safavids at the battle of Chaldiran


The Safavids vs the Ottomans; Ottomans won, and this symbolized the two greatest world powers at the time clashing together; religious war (Shi'ites Vs. Sunnis).

Martin Luther and the 95 Theses


written by Martin Luther and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. It is vitally important to understand that these theses were used for the intent of displaying Luther's displeasure with the Church's indulgences .

Ferdinand Magellan sails from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean

1519 - 1522

Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to the Spice Island by sailing around the American continent. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the world.

Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

"the lawgiver." reconstructed the ottoman legal system. controlled Kurdistan, Mesopotamia, and Iraq and advanced Ottoman borders in Eastern Europe. Brought all of Hungary under direct rule in 1540s.

Cortez Conquered Aztecs


Brought with him Smallpox, which aided in defeating the Aztecs due to their lack of Immunity to the deadly disease.

Start of the Mughal Empire


Muslim state exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Pizarro defeats the Inca


Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima.

Foundation of Quebec by the French


First permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain

John Calvin writes the Institutes of Christian Religion


Written by John Calvin, it contained four books which codified Protestant theology. Among these beliefs were the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of man, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation.

Copernicus' Book 'De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium' is published


"On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres," written by Copernicus, published just before his death in 1543. Dedicated to the Pope so wouldn't offend church. Also very scientific so priests couldn't understand it well enough to be angry over it.

Catholic Reformation Started by Holy Roman Empire

1545 - 1563

Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.

Reign of mughal Emperor Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar

1556 - 1603

The greatest of the Mughald Emperors. Second half of 1500s. Descendant of Timur. Consolidated power over northern India. Religiously tolerant. Patron of arts, including large mural paintings.

Battle of Lepanto


Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean, Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope.

Loyola sets sail for Canary Islands


crossed the Atlantic to La Désirade, Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo, to arrive in San Juan de Lúa (modern Veracruz), in México. After crossing to the Pacific Ocean coast of Mexico at Acapulco he sailed once again in a westerly direction, visiting the Mariana Islands, and the Philippines, before eventually reaching the Empire of China, where he landed in Fujian province.

Defeat of the Spanish Armada by the British


Notes the end of Spanish Dominance in the Atlantic/Indian Ocean trade.

End of Songhay Empire


Collapse of one of the largest Muslim empires in history, downfall of Timbuktu due to it being under control of Songhay.

Battle of Sekigahara


Tokugawa fought to succeed Hideyoshi, 80,000 feudal warriors while his opponent had 130,000, Ieyasu destroyed coalition's resistance and secured shogun's office

Foundation of Jamestown


Noting the beginning of British colonization in the Americas, founded by the Virginia company.

Galileo invents and Improves telescope


Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.

Beggining of Rangaku in Japan


"dutch studies" the study of western science and technologies during the edo period through the use of the dutch language.

End of Ming Dynasty


From 1629 onwards, the Míng were wearied by a combination of internal strife and constant harassment of Northern China by the Manchu, who had turned to raiding tactics so as to avoid facing the Míng armies in open battle.

Age of Enlightenment

1650 - 1700

an intellectual movement that came about because of enthusiasm for reason and the scientific process.

Thomas Hobbes Writes 'leviathan'


maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.

Beggining of Louis XIV Reign.


Presents himself as God sent him to credit the french state: 1. increase beaucracy 2. ministry of war 3. bring nobility under his control (titles etc) 4. Peasants cant rise up in charge only nobility can have control.

Reign of Qing Emporer Kangxi

1661 - 1722

Chinese Qing emperor who promoted Confucian ideas and policies and expanded the Qing empire (Captured Taiwan, Mongolia, and parts of Central Asia- Tibet).

Unsuccessful Ottoman Seige of Vienna


1683 Ottomans launch an assault on Vienna, but Vienna had a coalition to protect Vienna led by Sobieski that had 5,000 troops attack the Turks. Islamic state depleated, political Islam ceased to expand.

Glorious Revolution


A reference to the political events, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.

English Bill of Rights


document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament.

Beginning of the Russian Empire


The beginnings of the empire was due to Muscovite princes after the defeat of the Mongols in the late 1400s.

Reign of Qing Emperor Qianlong

1735 - 1796

Emperor of China, son of Kangxi expanded China's bounderies extensively. Would only rule for sixty years so as to not dishonor his grandfather.

Seven Years War

1754 - 1763

The war was driven by the antagonism between Great Britain (in personal union with Hanover) and the Bourbons (in France and Spain), resulting from overlapping interests in their colonial and trade empires.

Beginning of Catherine the Great's Reign


This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia.

Voltair Writes letters concerning English Nation


Lettres philosophiques or Letters Concerning the English Nation) is a series of essays written by Voltaire based on his experiences living in England between 1726 and 1729 (though from 1707 the country was part of Great Britain).