Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
7 voyages by Zheng He; visited western coast of India and city-states of East Africa
biggest factor in emergence of Renaissance and Reformation; 1445; important because of Renaissance's interest in classical texts, Humanist learning (secular, non-church sanctioned) and the Protestant Reformation (Bibles in vernacular languages)
7th sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire, captured Constantinople (Istanbul) (The Byzantine Empire)
The Ottomans under the driection of Mehmed II conquered the capital of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. This marked the end of the last remnant of the Roman Empire.
Leader of Songhai that drove out the Berbers and built the largest empire in West Africa by his death in 1492.
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
Columbus' voyage to the americas in 1492 was monumental in the fact that it opened the door for transatlantical trading and the expansion of colonies in the "new world"
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
arrived in Calicut in 1498 by force, captured many ports forcefully. very strict regulations, Catholic conservatism. reactions varied: Mughals didn't resist, Ottomans had successful heavy opposition. *never gained complete control from Muslims, but did bring in profit and break Italian pepper monopoly.
Portuguese merchants settled there, bought spices at low prices and shipped them back to Europe.
Founder of Safavid Empire in 1501, ruled until 1524; made Twelver Shiism the official religion of the empire and imposed it upon his Sunni subjects; his followers became known as qizilbash.
African Slaves in the New World. Spanish settlers bring slaves from Africa to Santo
Domingo (now the capital of the Dominican Republic).
Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean while exploring Panama
The Safavids vs the Ottomans; Ottomans won, and this symbolized the two greatest world powers at the time clashing together; religious war (Shi'ites Vs. Sunnis).
written by Martin Luther and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. It is vitally important to understand that these theses were used for the intent of displaying Luther's displeasure with the Church's indulgences .
Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to the Spice Island by sailing around the American continent. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the world.
"the lawgiver." reconstructed the ottoman legal system. controlled Kurdistan, Mesopotamia, and Iraq and advanced Ottoman borders in Eastern Europe. Brought all of Hungary under direct rule in 1540s.
Brought with him Smallpox, which aided in defeating the Aztecs due to their lack of Immunity to the deadly disease.
Muslim state exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima.
First permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain
Written by John Calvin, it contained four books which codified Protestant theology. Among these beliefs were the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of man, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation.
"On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres," written by Copernicus, published just before his death in 1543. Dedicated to the Pope so wouldn't offend church. Also very scientific so priests couldn't understand it well enough to be angry over it.
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
The greatest of the Mughald Emperors. Second half of 1500s. Descendant of Timur. Consolidated power over northern India. Religiously tolerant. Patron of arts, including large mural paintings.
Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean, Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope.
crossed the Atlantic to La Désirade, Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo, to arrive in San Juan de Lúa (modern Veracruz), in México. After crossing to the Pacific Ocean coast of Mexico at Acapulco he sailed once again in a westerly direction, visiting the Mariana Islands, and the Philippines, before eventually reaching the Empire of China, where he landed in Fujian province.
Notes the end of Spanish Dominance in the Atlantic/Indian Ocean trade.
Collapse of one of the largest Muslim empires in history, downfall of Timbuktu due to it being under control of Songhay.
Tokugawa fought to succeed Hideyoshi, 80,000 feudal warriors while his opponent had 130,000, Ieyasu destroyed coalition's resistance and secured shogun's office
Noting the beginning of British colonization in the Americas, founded by the Virginia company.
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries.
A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
"dutch studies" the study of western science and technologies during the edo period through the use of the dutch language.
From 1629 onwards, the Míng were wearied by a combination of internal strife and constant harassment of Northern China by the Manchu, who had turned to raiding tactics so as to avoid facing the Míng armies in open battle.
an intellectual movement that came about because of enthusiasm for reason and the scientific process.
maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
Presents himself as God sent him to credit the french state: 1. increase beaucracy 2. ministry of war 3. bring nobility under his control (titles etc) 4. Peasants cant rise up in charge only nobility can have control.
Chinese Qing emperor who promoted Confucian ideas and policies and expanded the Qing empire (Captured Taiwan, Mongolia, and parts of Central Asia- Tibet).
1683 Ottomans launch an assault on Vienna, but Vienna had a coalition to protect Vienna led by Sobieski that had 5,000 troops attack the Turks. Islamic state depleated, political Islam ceased to expand.
A reference to the political events, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament.
The beginnings of the empire was due to Muscovite princes after the defeat of the Mongols in the late 1400s.
Emperor of China, son of Kangxi expanded China's bounderies extensively. Would only rule for sixty years so as to not dishonor his grandfather.
The war was driven by the antagonism between Great Britain (in personal union with Hanover) and the Bourbons (in France and Spain), resulting from overlapping interests in their colonial and trade empires.
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia.
Lettres philosophiques or Letters Concerning the English Nation) is a series of essays written by Voltaire based on his experiences living in England between 1726 and 1729 (though from 1707 the country was part of Great Britain).