AP World - Period 5 (1750-1914)

KEY: Africa -- Purple, Europe -- Green, The Americas -- Blue, Asia -- Red

Inventions

Steam Engine is perfected

1765

This new steam engine created by James Watt could do more things and was more efficient. This was important because they would come to be used everywhere especially in the booming textile industry and it also boosted productivity leading to cheaper prices and more availability of products to all.

Spinning Mule developed

1779

Samuel Crompton developed this device that was used for spinning cotton and was adapted for steam power. This was important because it produced a hundred times more thread than a worker could using a manual spinning wheel and really boosted the industrial revolution.

Cotton Gin Developed

1793

This was and invention made by Eli Whitney that would greatly increase the production of cotton. This was important because not that it was faster and easier to make cotton, cotton became a cash crop and this had a dramatic effect on slavery and southern society in America.

Bessemer Processed Developed

1856

This process came after steel was starting to be used, steel was better because it was more resilient than iron and before this was too expensive to produce. Henry Bessemer builds a refined blast furnace where steel could now be produced cheaply and in large quantities. This was important because production rose sharply and steel would quickly come to replace iron in tools machines and structures.

Wars/Rebellions

American Revolution

1775 - 1781

After Britain tightened their control (new imposition of taxes, enforcement of navigation laws, overbearing troops) on the colonies the colonists revolted, declared their independence and won the war. This was important because it made America.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

At the start of the Revolution France was a mess, half of the government revenue went to the national debt and the majority of people were living in poverty while the nobility lived in luxury. Because of this people in the third estate wanted reform from the government and Louis XVI was a weak and indecisive ruler who didn't help get the country back together at all. The people revolted led by radicals like Robespierre and some moderates, together after a lot of turmoil they were able to bring their enlightened ideals to the government and create modern day France.

Haitian Revolution

1797 - 1804

This was when the slaves on the island of Haiti led by Toussaint Louverture revolted against the French and won creating their own constitution. This was important because it freed them from France.

Wars of Latin American Independence

1810 - 1825

These wars were all a part of Latin American Countries gaining their independence from Spain. They were important because it shows the spirit of revolt that was around at the time and it created the Latin American Countries we see today.

War of Greek Independence

1821 - 1827

In these wars Greek revels fought to overcome Ottoman rule and were successful. This was important because it created Greece and also shows the nationalist sentiment against the old order in the 19th century at the time.

Opium War

1839 - 1842

British commercial agent were mad about Chinese action against opium and pushed their government into a military retaliation designed to reopen the opium trade. Because of British superiority in battle it was easy for them to beat the Chinese and take advantage of them. This was important because of the outcome of the war where Britain and China would sign a series of unequal treaties that gave several nations the right to trade and basically control the Chinese economy.

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

This was a rebellion in Qing China that was led by Hong Xiuqan against the Qing dynasty. It was important because claimed the lives of 20-30 million, caused drastic declines in agricultural production, and was also a symbolic of the decline of China in the 19th century.

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Military conflict between Russia and Britain, France, the kingdom of Saridinia and the Ottoman empire that was rooted in the expansive efforts of Russia which was interrupting the balance of power in Europe at this time. Russia wasn't able to mobilize, equip, or transport troops to defeat them and they suffered devastating and humiliating loss. This was important because it clearly showed the weakness of their agrarian economy against the West and it forced the tsarist autocracy to reevaluate the Russian social order and structure.

Boxer Rebellion

1898 - 1901

A violent anti foreign uprising headed by milita unit that called themselves "The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" They wanted to rid CHina of foreign influence and in Northern China went on a rampage and killed foreigners, Chinese Christians, and Chinese who had ties with foreigners. They also attacked foreign embassies but the British, French, Russian, US, German, and japanese troops quickly retaliated and defeated them. This was important because Chinese government had to pay them, allow foreign powers to station troops in Beijing and embassies along the sea. Also because Cixi had instigated the attack many Chinese viewed the Qing dynasty as weak which led to revolutionary uprisings which gained widespread public support and would lead to the end of the dynasty.

Boer War

1899 - 1902

Also called the South African War and was a brutal conflict that developed from the tensions between British authorities and Afrikaners. In the end the Afrikaners would be defeated. It was important because it took a large toll on the white and black populations and by 1910 the British government would reconstitute the colonies it had there and set a path for the privileges of the white colonial society and domination of black Africans.

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Tensions between Japan and Russia over territorial ambitions resulted in this war where Japanese forces destroyed Russian powers. This was important because Japan won international recognition for its colonies in Korea and the Liaodong peninsula, they also got economically viable land from Russia and Japan became a major imperial power.

People

Toussaint Louverture

1744 - 1803

Toussaint was a livestock overseer on a plantation with some education and a freed slave. In 1793 he built a strong army to fight the French and gain freedom for Haiti. Important because he made a constitution that gave equality and citizenship to all residents and was vital to the independence of Haiti from France.

Reign of King Louis XVI

1774 - 1793

The reign of King Louis the 14th was the time in which France was experiencing a lot of turmoil because the majority of the populations needs were not being met or even recognized. It didn't help that Louis wasn't a very strong leader and because of this was happening the people started to revolt and it's important because the French Revolution then started.

Simon Bolivar

1783 - 1830

He was a creole elite who helped lead the movement for independence in South America. He was a republican who studied Enlightened ideas about popular sovereignty. In 1811 he took up arms against the Spanish and in 1819 would crush the Spanish army in Colombia. His ultimate goal was to bring all the Spanish colonies into one confederation like the US but it didn't work because of strong political and regional differences. He was important because he was a key factor in the independence of the Spanish colonies.

Reign of Napoleon

1799 - 1814

Napoleon Bonaparte was a military leader who took advantage of the instability after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor of France. He loved to conquer and expand and was very good at it. He is important because a lot of the things he di while in power impacted the future. He made the Napoleonic Code which influenced future governments, he also made the Louisiana Purchase with the US, and he increased the nationalist sentiment in a lot of the countries he conquered.

Henry Ford and the Assembly Line

1913

He introduced the idea of the assembly line when creating the factories for his cars. Instead of organizing production around a series of stations where teams would assemble each car individually a conveyor system was now used that carried the components to the workers and then each worker would perform a specialized task at that point on the line. It was important because it brought productivity gains which allowed the car prices to plummet and increase the availability of a car to people. Also it gave way tot he modern factory system used today.

Events

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

A gathering of European diplomats in Austria. In it all the representatives of the great powers that defeated Napoleon (Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia) dominated the proceedings. Their aim as to restore the pre-revolutionary political and social order. This was important because it would come to establish the future boundaries of Europe.

Berlin West Africa Conference

1845 - 1885

This was a meeting organized by German chancellor Otton Von Bismarck that would give the justification for European colonization of Africa. This was important because for a long time after European imperialists would stake their claims and impose oppressive colonial rule.

Communist Manifesto

1848

Written by Friedrick Engels and Karl Marx and was a document that outlined their viewpoints and beliefs. In it they claimed that the excesses of capitalism would lead to a communist revolution, the dictatorship of the proletariat would destroy capitalism, and that in the end socialism would lead to a fair just egalitarian society. This was extremely important because these ideas would dominate European and INternational socialism throughout the 19th century.

Sepoy Rebellion

1857 - 1858

A deadly uprising in India that was in response to the harsh treatment by the British towards the sepoy regiments. The sepoys were joined by Indian princes and their followers whose ways of life and income had been disrupted by British trade, missionary work, and misguided social reforms. It turned into a full-fledged war of independence against British rule but ended after months of inconclusive battles and peace was declared. Important because it shows Indian discontent with their rulers and seriously threatened the British Empires foothold in India.

The Origin of Species is published

1859

Written by Charles Darwin, and English biologist, in which he argued that all living species had evolved over thousands of years in a contest for survival. The species that adapted well would prosper whereas the others would go extinct. Theorists of the time (social Darwinists) used this idea to explain the development of human societies. This was important because the domination of European imperialists over subject peoples would be justified with the "survival of the fittest" mentality.

Suez Canal

1859 - 1869

This was a canal constructed in Egypt. It was important because it facilitated the building and maintenance of empires by allowing naval vessels to ravel faster between world seas and oceans it also lowered the costs of trade between imperial powers and subject lands.

Unification of Italy

1859 - 1870

This was done by Cavour and Gibraldi they led nationalists and expelled Austrian authorities in the north, they were inspired by uprisings against foreign rule. Important because it created Italy.

Emancipation of Russian Serfs

1861

This was when Alexander II freed all of the serfs. This serfs had been supporting the nobility but had become an obstacle to their economic development. THis was important because it was a big step in Russia social reform but also had little effect on their lives. They gained the right to land but had no political rights and had to pay a heavy tax that let to the same situation, it also didn't increase agricultural production.

Emancipation of the Serfs

1861

This was when Alexander II freed all of the serfs who had been supporting the nobility but become an obstacle to Russia's economic development. It was important because it was a big step in Russian social reform but also had little effect on their lives. Although they did gain the right to land they still had no political rights and had to pay a heavy tax that left them poor it also did not increase agricultural production.

Unification of Germany

1864 - 1871

Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck was the one who created a united Germany. He provoked 3 wars and increased German antionalism which had been previously repressed. Important because now Germany was a united country.

Indian National Congress

1885

This was a reform group in India that was a place for educated Indians to communicate their view on public affairs to colonial officials. Representatives from all over India would come to talk about issues (poverty, trade/tariff policies hurting Indian businesses, British racism to Indians, etc) This was important because by the end of the 1800's the Congress would come to openly seek Indian self rule, so it clearly enhanced India's drive for political reform and nationalism.

Panama Canal

1904 - 1914

This canal was built by the United States between Panama and Columbia to help facilitate communication and transportation between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This was important because in order to construct the canal President Theodore Roosevelt supported a rebellion against Colombia so Panama could break away, in exchange for the United States support Panama gave the right to build the canal and control the territory, in doing this it showed the United States growing interest in imperial expansion and it strengthened US military and economic claims.