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General Douglas MacArthur

January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964

Douglas MacArthur was a skilled US General. On June 1950, the Korean War was rapidly advancing and MacArthur had to step in, due to his knowledge of Asia. Using reckless tactics, his troops were sacrificing their supply lines for victory in the Korean War. China appeared on the Yalu river and said that it would intervene if the UN continued to attack. MacArthur said that they were lying but they were not. On November 24 THey sent out 300,000 chinese soldiers to attack the UN. Mac Arthur suggested that they bomb china but Truman refused. April 11, 1951, he was relieved of his duties.

He is important to US history because he is mostly contriversal. While his speeches are mostly empowering, such as his Old Soldiers Never Die speech, his methods were to expensive and risky. Even if that was true, America was literally bogged down during the Vietnam War. It is still disputed that if such risks were nessecary for a quick victory

Franklin D. Roosevelt

January 30, 1882 - April 12, 1945

His ambitious slate of New Deal programs and reforms redefined the role of the federal government in the lives of Americans. Reelected by comfortable margins in 1936, 1940 and 1944, FDR led the United States from isolationism to victory over Nazi Germany and its allies in World War II. He successful wartime alliance between Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States and helped lay the groundwork for the post-war peace organization that would become the United Nations. The only American president in history to be elected four times, Roosevelt died in office in April 1945

Benito Mussolini

1883 - 1945

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country from 1922 to his ousting in 1943. In 1926 Mussolini seized total power as dictator and ruled Italy as Il Duce from 1930 to 1943.

Hideki Tojo

1884 - November 12, 1948

Hideki Tojo was a military commander in the China-Japan War. But then he became a prime minister in October 18, 1941 2 months before the Pearl Harbor attack. He also agreed for hostilities against the United States. Eventually after a number of defeats, he accepted responsibly and resigned July 22, 1944. He was eventually arrested for his role of waging war against china as well as United States and other countries. He was sentenced to death by hanging on November 12, 1948.

Harry S Truman

May 8, 1884 - December 26, 1972

Truman was the first president since Reconstruction to propose civil rights movements. He ordered the US Armies to allow any sort of race on the ranks. It even proved that a non segregated army in the Korean war was more efficiant than a segregated on.
The Korean War acted as as stalemate on Truman’s remaining years of presidency. It ended hopes of the Fair Deals and brought on more anticommunisms. Not to mention Truman’s reputation was decreased. On March 1952, he said he is not going for reelection.

He left his seat, with a low reputation. But he was the one who suggested civil rights movements and universal Health insurance.

Dwight D Eisenhower

1890 - 1969

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He had previously been a five-star general in the United States Army during World War 2

Adolf Hitler

1890 - 1945

Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party. He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

Nikita Khrushchev

April 17, 1894 - September 11, 1971

He was the leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. He looked up to Stalin, dispite claiming that he disapproved of his tyranical reign. He promised reform in the soviet economy, agriculture, and education. He came up with a plan to overtake the US in economic production, weapons technology, and space productions (thus the launch of sputnik in 1957). Dispite shocking the whole world, he failed to keep his promise of reform. Due to his broken promise as well as his failure in affairs such as the Berlin Question and the cuban missile crisis, he was overthrown in 1964.

Alger Hiss

1904 - 1996

Alger Hiss was an American lawyer, government official, author, and lecturer. He was involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a U.S. State Department and U.N. official. He was under suspicion of being a spy for Russia.

Joseph McCarthy

November 4, 1908 - May 2, 1957

Joseph McCarthy was a US senator who was famous of unproven claims of a communist conspiracy at the works of the US government. On February 9th, 1950. He shown a piece of paper that had names of communists in the businesses. That was false of course, but his convincing demeanor lead the charges be credited. And as the news spread, his popularity grew and grew. Soon he started to accuse the us army of communism, then the latter started to accuse McCarthy of communism. Then, the army’s attoroney, Joseph N. Welch, proven that McCarthy faked photographs and documents for evidence his earlier unproven charges. He was then censured in December 2, 1954, and died 3 years later.

McCarthy is responsible for abusing his power and ruining the lives and reputations of innocent people.

Revolution(Bolsheviks)

1917

The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917 was initiated by millions of people who would change the history of the world as we know it. When Czar Nicholas II dragged 11 million peasants into World War I, the Russian people became discouraged with their injuries and the loss of life they sustained. The country of Russia was in ruins, ripe for revolution.

The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917 was initiated by millions of people who would change the history of the world as we know it. When Czar Nicholas II dragged 11 million peasants into World War I, the Russian people became discouraged with their injuries and the loss of life they sustained. The country of Russia was in ruins, ripe for revolution.

Franklin Deleno gets polio

1921

FDR is elected

1932

allies in World War II. He spearheaded the successful wartime alliance between Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States and helped lay the groundwork for the post-war peace organization that would become the United Nations. The only American president in history to be elected four times, Roosevelt died in office in April 1945.

Hitller Removed Jews

1935 - 1938

Munich agreement

1938

Marshall Plan

April 1938

The Marshall plan was an American program to aid the devastation in Europe after the conclusion of World War II. The plan was active for four years starting in 1948. In 1952 when the program ended every participant country had economic levels that surpassed pre-war levels.

House UnAmerican Activities Committee

May 26, 1938

This committee, created om May 26th, 1938, was created to uncover fascist subversion, mostly Nazi spies, Klu Klux Klan, and any other groups with Pro German and facist learnings.

Nazi Soviet Pact

August 23, 1939

The Nazi-Soviet Pact was a non-aggression pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. The signing of the agreement would assure that Germany could wage a war without having to worry about her eastern front. In the agreement the Soviet Union was given parts of Poland as well as parts of the Baltic states.

Winston Churchhill (in office)

May 10, 1940 - July 26, 1945

Out of office and politically "in the wilderness" during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in warning about Nazi Germany and in campaigning for rearmament. On the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister. His steadfast refusal to consider defeat, surrender, or a compromise peace helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult early days of the War when Britain stood alone among European countries in its active opposition to Adolf Hitler. Churchill was particularly noted for his speeches and radio broadcasts, which helped inspire the British people. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured.

Atlantic Charter

1941

A pivotal policy statement first issued in August 1941 that early in World War II defined the Allied goals for the post-war world.

Lend-Lease Act

March 11, 1941

was the law that started a program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the USSR, Republic of China, Free France, and other Allied nations with material between 1941 and 1945. It was signed into law on March 11, 1941, a year and a half after the outbreak of World War II in Europe in September 1939. This was nine months before the U.S. entered the war in December 1941. Formally titled An Act to Further Promote the Defense of the United States, the Act effectively ended the United States' pretense of neutrality.
A total of $50.1 billion (equivalent to $647 billion today) worth of supplies were shipped: $31.4 billion to Britain, $11.3 billion to the Soviet Union, $3.2 billion to France, $1.6 billion to China, and smaller sums to other Allies. Reverse Lend-Lease comprised services such as rent on air bases that went to the U.S., and totaled $7.8 billion; of this, $6.8 billion came from the British and the Commonwealth.

Hideki Tojo Became Prime Minister

October 18, 1941

Hideki Tojo was a military commander in the China-Japan War. But then he became a prime minister in October 18, 1941 2 months before the Pearl Harbor attack. He also agreed for hostilities against the United States. Eventually after a number of defeats, he accepted responsiblity and resigned July 22, 1944. He was eventually arrested for his role of waging war against china as well as United States and other countries. He was sentenced to death by hanging on November 12, 1948.

Pearl Harbor (Attack)

December 7, 1941

Was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan). From the standpoint of the defenders, the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time.

Japanese American Internment Camp

1942

During World War II, the federal government ordered 120,000 Japanese-Americans who lived on the West coast to leave their homes and live in 10 large relocation camps in remote, desolate areas, surrounded by barbed wire and armed guards.

Manhattan Project

1942 - 1946

Los Alamos has a long and varied history. However, its uniqueness – and what it is best known for – comes from its role as the site for the development of the world’s first atomic bombs. Like the Manhattan Project

Los Alamos and the Atomic Bomb

1942 - 1946

Los Alamos has a long and varied history. However, its uniqueness – and what it is best known for – comes from its role as the site for the development of the world’s first atomic bombs. Like the Manhattan Project.

Korematsu v. United States

1944

was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship.

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill)

June 22 1944

The Service men’s Readjustment Act, also known as the GI Bill, provided a wide range of benefits to returning WWII veterans. Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business or farm, cash payments of tuition and living expenses to attend college, high school or vocational education, as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It was available to every veteran who had been on active duty during the war years for at least ninety days and had not been dishonorably discharged; combat was not required.

Hideki Tojo Resigns

July 22, 1944

Harry Truman Inaugurated

1945

“...the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures...”

Iron Curtian

1945 - 1991

The Iron Curtain is a physical barrier that the Soviets set up to separate the Warsaw Pact countries from the NATO countries from about 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The countries to the east of the wall were communist and the countries to the west were non communists. The term “iron curtain” gained a lot of prominence when it was used as a metaphor during one of Winston Churchill's speeches on March 5, 1946.

Yalta Conference

February 4, 1945 - February 11, 1945

The meeting was intended mainly to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. Within a few years, with the Cold War dividing the continent, Yalta became a subject of intense controversy. To some extent, it has remained controversial.

Potsdam Conference

July 17, 1945 - August 2, 1945

Stalin, Churchill, and Truman—as well as Attlee, who participated alongside Churchill while awaiting the outcome of the 1945 general election, and then replaced Churchill as Prime Minister after the Conservative's defeat to the Labour Party—gathered to decide how to administer punishment to the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on 8 May (V-E Day). The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of the war

Hiroshima and Nagasaki Bombing

August 6, 1945 - August 9, 1945

Atomic bombs, otherwise known as an atom bomb, are weapons with great explosive power that results from nuclear fission. The first atomic bomb was built in Los Alamos, New Mexico and tested in Alamogordo, New Mexico by a program called the Manhattan Project. Two different types of the bomb, one plutonium based and the other uranium based, were exploded over Nagasaki and Hiroshima, respectively. The force of an atom bomb is equivalent to roughly 15,000 to 20,000 pounds of TNT. The explosion of the atomic bomb over Hiroshima completely flattened roughly 4.5 square miles of land and killed almost 350,000 inhabitants. Roughly 30,000 people were killed and another 25,000 were injured from the blast at Nagasaki.

Cold War

August 6, 1945

The Cold War was a war between the United States, the Soviet Union and their allies. The reason it’s called the “Cold War” is because the two countries never got involved in actual warfare, it was a nuclear standoff that lasted for many years.. The closest the U.S. got to fight the Soviet Union was in the Cuban Missile Crisis. The reason the Cold War started was because the Soviets and the U.S. wanted to see who was more powerful. It started during WW2 on Aug. 6 1945 after Truman ordered the drop of the atomic bomb.

Atomic Bomb

August 6,1945 - August 9,1945

Atomic bombs, otherwise known as an atom bomb, are weapons with great explosive power that results from nuclear fission. The first atomic bomb was built in Los Alamos, New Mexico and tested in Alamogordo, New Mexico by a program called the Manhattan Project. Two different types of the bomb, one plutonium based and the other uranium based, were exploded over Nagasaki and Hiroshima, respectively. The force of an atom bomb is equivalent to roughly 15,000 to 20,000 pounds of TNT. The explosion of the atomic bomb over Hiroshima completely flattened roughly 4.5 square miles of land and killed almost 350,000 inhabitants. Roughly 30,000 people were killed and another 25,000 were injured from the blast at Nagasaki.

United Nations (Established)

October 24, 1945

Established in October 24, 1945. After the failure of the League of Nations, the United nations were created. It was created so that member nations could sit at a conference hall and sit and talk about their problems. Without any violence. In contrast to the League of Nations, the members are given sustained power to vote and veto bills.

Containment Policy

1946

“...the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures...”

Iron Curtian Speech

March 5, 1946

Less than a year after the end of World War II, the great wartime leader of Britain, Winston Churchill, delivered this speech in which he first coined the term "iron curtain" to describe the ominous postwar boundary in Europe between self-governing nations of the West and those in Eastern Europe which had recently come under the powerful grip of Soviet Russia.

During the war against Hitler, Russian troops had advanced far beyond their own borders into Europe, smashing Nazi Germany from the east while the Americans, British, Canadians and other allies attacked Hitler from the west. After the war, the Russians gave no indication they intended to withdraw and instead began installing puppet governments throughout Eastern Europe.

In this speech, Churchill begins by acknowledging America's newfound power in the world, and then offers a blunt assessment of the threat of Communism from Russia. Churchill gave the speech at Westminster College, in Fulton, Missouri, after receiving an honorary degree and was introduced by Missourian, President Harry Truman, who attended the event out of pure admiration for Churchill.

Truman Doctrin

March 12, 1947

The Truman Doctrine was a policy set forth by President Harry Truman in a speech on March 12, 1947. The speech stated that the US would support both Turkey and Greece with economic and military aid to prevent them from falling into the sphere of the Soviet Union. This is often considered the start of the Cold war, as it was the start of the containment policy to stop Soviet expansion.

Loyalty Board

March 21, 1947

Feeding the fire of distrust that was created by the red scare, was the executive order issued by Harry S. Truman creating a Loyalty Board. The Loyalty Board, also called the Loyalty Review Board, investigated over 3 million employees of the Federal Government, delving into their past and present affiliations and actions in order to weed out those suspected of being communists or communist sympathizers. Over 200 were found guilt and fired and thousands of others resigned, many in protest over the investigation and the secrecy surrounding the evidence being collected about them.

Taft-Hartley Act

June 23 1947

The Taft-Hartley Act, also known as the labor management Relations act, restricts the power and activities of labor unions. Labor union leaders called it the “slave-labor bill”. Despite a veto by President Truman, the bill still passed to the dismay of many. Truman argued that it was a "dangerous intrusion on free speech".

Marshal Plan

April 1948

The Marshall plan was an American program to aid the devastation in Europe after the conclusion of World War II. The plan was active for four years starting in 1948. In 1952 when the program ended every participant country had economic levels that surpassed pre-war levels.

Hideki Tojo Died

November 12, 1948

He was sentenced to death by hanging on November 12, 1948.

Fair Deal

January 1949

The term, however, has also been used to describe the domestic reform agenda of the Truman Administration, which governed the United States from 1945 to 1953. It marked a new stage in the history of Modern liberalism in the United States, but with the Conservative Coalitiondominant in Congress, the major initiatives did not become law unless they had GOP support. As Neustadt concludes, the most important proposals were aid to education and universal health.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

April 4, 1949

The North Atlantic Treaty was created on April 4, 1949. It was created as a measure to protect it’s members against aggression from the Soviet Union or it’s surrounding nations. .It was the most Successful alliance in history and it kept it’s peace with Europe as well as keep the western countries out of the hand of communism. The Aim was to encourage “the further development of peaceful and international relations by strengthening their (the twelve signatories) free institutions and bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions have founded...”

Julius Was Arrested (Ethel/Julius)

1950

Korean War

June 25,1950

On June 25, 1950, the Korean War began when some 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean People’s Army poured across the 38th parallel, the boundary between the Soviet-backed Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to the north and the pro-Western Republic of Korea to the south.

McCarran Internal Security Act

September 22, 1950

The act required the members of communist organizations to register with the United States Attorney General. The act also established the Subversive Activities control board to investigate those suspected of either being fascists or communists. The act had to power to keep communists from entering or leaving the country. The Act also contained an emergency detention statute, giving the President the authority to apprehend and detain "each person as to whom there is a reasonable ground to believe that such person probably will engage in, or probably will conspire with others to engage in, acts of espionage or sabotage."

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg (Executed)

April 5, 1951

April 5, 1951, a judge sentenced them to death.

Truman Was Relieved Of His Duties

April 11, 1951

Marshal Plan Program Ended

1952

Dwight D. Eisenhower As President

1953 - 1961

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He had previously been a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II

Domino Theory

1954 - 1975

The Domino Theory stated that a communist victory would quickly become a chain reaction of communist takeover in neighboring countries. The US used this to justify its support of a non-communist regime in South Vietnam against the communist government of North Vietnam.

Army-McCarthy Hearings

April 1954 - June 1954

The Army-McCarthy Hearings began after WWII when Senator Joseph McCarthy accused the US government employees of being communists or communist sympathizers. He eventually turned his interest towards the Army, when they then proceeded to launch their own investigation of him. The Senate hearings resulting from this, called the Army-McCarthy hearings, were televised live in 1954. The hearings turned everyone against him.

Joseph McCarthy Voted To Be Censured

December 2, 1954

He was censured in December 2, 1954, and died 3 years later

WarSaw Pact

May 14, 1955 - July 1, 1991

The Warsaw Pact was an Alliance agreement between the Soviet Union and her satellite states: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. Albania was also a member for sometime however they joined on their own and they were not a puppet of the USSR. The Warsaw Pact was created by the Soviets as a reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO.

Sputnik Launched

October 4, 1957

Sputnik 1 was the first artificial Earth satellite. It was a 585 mm diameter shiny metal sphere, with four external radio antennae to broadcast radio pulses. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957.

NASA (created)

1959

After the launch of Sputnik, the UnitedStates were despirate to create a space program. President Dwight Eisenhower agreeed to form a single agency to bring an American into space. Department of Defence, Atomic Engergy Commission (AEC), and National Advisory Committee of AeroNautics. Department of Defence had most experiance with missile programs but the President wouldn’t want to send a military into space. AEC was a new agency with little rocket experiance. NACA had experiance with designing aircraft so they had a winner. the President signed teh space program to NACA, signing the bill on July 29, 1959. They changed the name to National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or NASA. On May 25th 1961, John F Kennedy announced the plan to land a man on the moon.

President Signed Space Program

July 29, 1959

After the launch of Sputnik, the UnitedStates were despirate to create a space program. President Dwight Eisenhower agreeed to form a single agency to bring an American into space. Department of Defence, Atomic Engergy Commission (AEC), and National Advisory Committee of AeroNautics. Department of Defence had most experiance with missile programs but the President wouldn’t want to send a military into space. AEC was a new agency with little rocket

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)

1961

Mutually Assured Destruction is a military strategy used by countries as a threat of superiority over the other. The Cold War is a perfect example, a decades long standoff between the US and the Soviets where both were ready to hit a button and launch nuclear weapons at one another. The end result is a not a win or a loss, but the complete annihilation of one another.

Berlin Blockade and Airlift

1961

During the Cold War, between the United States and the Soviet Union, Germany was divided (literally) into the East and the West sections as a result of the victory by the Allies during WW2.Berlin was entirely inside the Eastern German territory and were also divided into East and West per a treaty arranged by the allies. There were four different sectors; British, French, American and Russian. While relations between the communist eastern side and the allies diminished, distrust and animosity between them grew. The people of East Berlin wanted to enjoy the freedoms that the West Berliners had so they started to escape control of the communists. The East Germans built a wall in 1961 to keep East Germans from escaping into the West. This wall left the Westerners trapper with no way in or out and the only way to get supplies in was by flying people in and out.

Military Industrial Complex

January 17, 1961

The military-industrial complex is a term which refers to the large corporations that make weaponry. The term is normally used when discussing the lobbying done by these corporations.
This highlights a flaw in US military strategic policy. Congress decides which weapon programs go ahead and their budgets. The problem is of course that the congressmen and women are representatives of the people, some of whom work in weapons factories. Many weapons programs are continued not because the military leadership wants them, but because a congressman does not want the factory to close.

Berlin Wall (Created)

August 1961

The Berlin Wall was created on August 1961. in 1958, Khrushchev threatened that he would control the city closing it off from east Germany. It lead to an increased number of refugees Eventually they created a small barreer blocking east Germany from Berlin. The barrier soon increased into a large cement wall running 30 feet across Berlin and surrounding Wes Berlin blocking refugees. The West accepted it as an alternative to international crisis on the brink of war. On 1989 it was brought down.

End Of Nikita's Rule

1964