Sung emperors began to censor and suppress non-governmental newssheets before the demise of their dynasty in 1279
Bestowing and denying printers privileges became a major form of government control of the press in England
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain required all printed works to be licensed, which means approved in advance by government or church authorities
Another form of press restriction in Spain was burning offensive books by the Inquisition
Edict of Worms in Germany includes requirement that printers submit to prior censorship
All printed works in England must be licensed after this date
In France, flogging becomes the first-time penalty for those who circulate defamatory or seditious broadsides or pamphlets. Repeat offenders are subject to the death penalty; press remains tightly controlled in France until French Revolution in 1789
John Milton publishes Areopagitica, a pamphlet defending press freedom during the English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell restores press controls in England
Licensing Act restricts press lapses in England
Governor and council of colony of Massachusetts close America’s first newspaper down after its first issue
Licensing Act ends permanently after the “Glorious Revolution;” becomes more difficult for authorities to control content of newspapers
Stamp tax imposed on newspapers in England
Jury finds John Peter Zenger, the publisher of the New-York Weekly Journal, innocent of seditious libel (triumph for press freedom)
American press rises in protest against Stamp Act
British Parliament institutes series of taxes (Townshend Acts) on goods imported into America, including paper
More than 100 people imprisoned for circulating illegal pamphlets in France
Because of strict press controls, Paris has only four newspapers
President John Adams signs Sedition Act, which makes it a crime to write, print, utter or publish attacks against U.S. government
States passing laws limiting the power of judges to hold reporters to contempt of court
Circulations of legal newspapers in England continue to be held down by the stamp tax on each copy
Under the Espionage Act, U.S. government revokes the mailing privileges of many non-mainstream (socialist) newspapers
President Woodrow Wilson leads United States into World War I and hires press agent to support effort; George Creel also serves on censorship board
Number of U.S. radio stations skyrockets to 576; “toll” is charged for use of airtime on stations
Radio Act establishes a Federal Radio Commission to assign radio frequencies and grant licenses; replaced by Federal Communications Commission in 1934
U.S. Supreme Court rules in Near v. Minnesota that prior restraint of the press is allowed under only the most unusual of circumstances
TV broadcasting begins in U.S
“Pentagon Papers” released; Supreme Court finally rules that government’s argument for prior restraint of the press is not sufficiently strong in this case
Reporters blocked from covering initial stages of U.S. invasion of Caribbean island of Grenada; group of journalists that managed to land on the island were prevented by U.S. military officials from reporting what was happening for two days
determined that fair use is not a defense to the appropriation of work by a famous political figure simply because of the public interest in learning of that political figure's account of an historic event
Hepps brought suit against Philadelphia Newspapers, Inc., after it published a series of articles alleging that Plaintiff had links to organized crime, and had used their position to exercise influence over the government. Ruling was that a private party cannot bring suit against a newspaper for slander or libel, without bearing the burden of showing falsity and fault, before recovering damages.
Public school officials can censor school-sponsored newspapers, because the newspapers are part of the school curriculum rather than a forum for public expression.
The First Amendment prohibits public figures from recovering damages for intentional infliction of emotional harm unless the publication contained a false statement made with actual malice.
An Eleventh Circuit panel held that school officials can remove books from the curriculum if they believe they are too vulgar for students.
This case rejected the argument that a separate opinion privilege existed against libel. It was seen by legal commentators as the end of an era that began with New York Times Co. v. Sullivan and continued with Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., in which the Court clarified and greatly expanded the range and scope of what could be said in the press without fear of litigation.
The First Amendment does not bar a promissory estoppel cause of action against respondents. The Supreme Court ruled that a breach of contract was inappropriate.
The rule enunciated by this case is that broadcasters are to be afforded First Amendment rights in freedom of speech, but they cannot abrogate the rights of other broadcasters, or force them out of the market.
The court held that Massachusetts law protects students' rights to engage in vulgar, non-school-sponsored speech as long as it does not cause a disruption at school.
Congress passed provisions in the Communications Decency Act of 1996 to protect minors from harmful material on the Internet. Two provisions criminalized the display of "indecent" or "patently offensive" online communications.
Found the publication of a rape victim's name to NOT be constitutional because the reporter viewed the name negligently left on police reports laying around at the police department.
The court ruling held that school officials may not punish a student for the content of his or her personal homepage unless the material creates a substantial disruption at school.
The panel held that school officials did not violate the First Amendment when they terminated the teacher for allowing her students to use profanity in their classroom work.
The panel held that school officials can require students to obtain prior approval for campaign slogans during school-sponsored elections.
A Tenth Circuit panel held that school officials had reason to believe a student’s display of the Confederate flag would cause a substantial disruption or collide with the rights of others.
The issue was whether a high school anti-harassment policy that prohibits a broad range of speech offensive to others violates the First Amendment. A Third Circuit panel held that such a broadly worded policy prohibits too much speech and violates the First Amendment.
United States Supreme Court case relieving a media defendant of liability for broadcasting a taped conversation of a labor official talking to other union people about a teachers' strike
The Pennsylvania Supreme Court held that school officials could punish the student because the student's web site created a substantial disruption of school activities.