A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
Voyages of Zheng He
1405 - 1433
A Chinese Muslim admiral. He had remarkable expeditions because of their size. His travels ranged from South East Asia to eastern Africa. Everywhere he went, he distributed gifts like silver and silk to show Chinese Superiority.
1428 - 1521
1438 - 1533
Gutenburg uses movable type printing
The printing press revolutionized Renaissance time, resulting in more books and increased the spread of knowledge among the people.
Reign of Ottoman Sultan: Mehmet II
1451 - 1481
The 7th sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire, captured Constantinople (Istanbul) (The Byzantine Empire)
Ottomans capture Constantinople
Reign of Sunni Ali
1464 - 1492
the leader of the Songhai, who in 1468, stormed into Timbuktu and drove out the Berbers beginning a campaign of conquest of the Sahara; by the time of his death in 1492 he had built the largest empire in west Africa
1464 - 1591
Dias rounded Cape of Good Hope
Beginning of the Colombian Exchange
biological and ecological exchange that occurred following European arrival in the New World; peoples of Europe and Africa came to the Americas; animals, plants, and diseases moved between Old and New Worlds.
Columbus Lands in the Bahamas
Institution organized by Fernando and Isabel of Spain to hunt out heretical or contrary opinions; subjects of persecution included Protestants, Jews, Muslims, and witches.
Start of the Spanish Voyages to the Americas
Treaty of Tordesillas
an agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Portuguese enter the Indian Ocean
1497 - 1542
Vasco de Gama lands in Calicut India
A Portuguese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Shah Ismail founds the Safavid Empire
1501 - 1514
Founder of Safavid Empire and made Twelver Shiism the official religion of the empire and imposed it upon his Sunni subjects; his followers were known as qizilbash.
First slaves to the Americas
Vasco de Balboa
Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama
Battle of Chaldiran
Safavids are defeated by the Ottomans
Luther creates the "95 Theses"
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. Written in response to a new campaign to sell indulgences
1517 - 1648
a religious movement that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
1519 - 1522
Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to the Spice Island by sailing around the American continent. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the world.
Death of Montezuma
The Aztec emperor was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico
Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent
1520 - 1566
Expanded from Syria and Egypt to southwest Asia and Central Europe; built powerful enough navy to attack European fleets
Cortez conquers the Aztecs
1526 - 1707
One of the most successful empires of India; a state founded by Muslim Turks who invaded India in 1526; their rule was noted for efforts to create a partnership between Hindus and Muslims
Defeat of the Incas
Pizarro defeats the Inca and the last Inca emperor, Atahualpa, is executed.
Foundation of Quebec
First permanent French settlement in the Americas
John Calvin writes "The Institutes of the Christian Religion"
Calvin's formulation of Christian doctrine, which became a systematic theology for Protestantism
Copernicus' book is printed
"On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres," written by Copernicus, published just before his death. Dedicated to the Pope so it wouldn't offend the church. Also very scientific so priests couldn't understand it well enough to be angry over it.
1545 - 1563
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Reign of Akbar
1556 - 1605
The most famous Muslim ruler of India during the period of Mughal rule. Famous for his religious tolerance, his investment in rich cultural feats, and the creation of a centralized governmental administration.
Battle of Lepanto
a naval battle fought between a Spanish and Venetian fleet and the German navy. The Spanish won. The battle meant that European navies had surpassed the Muslims. The Turks could no longer challenge Europeans on international routes.
Sets sail for the Canary Islands.
leader of the Jesuits who sought to revert protestants, stop the spread of Protestantism, and diffuse Catholicism throughout the world.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Defeated by the British.
Battle of Sekigahra
Defeating all his enemies, in 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu achieved true unification of Japan with his victory at this Battle.
Foundation of Jamestown
Beginning of English colonization of the Americas.
Galileo improves the telescope
1564-1642, Italian physicist and astronomer.
Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals: the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. Wars ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
Japanese study of all things Dutch. It eventually aided in helping Japan open up. It was especially concerned with medicine and science;
Reign of Louis XIV
1643 - 1715
"L'etat c'est moi". ( I am the State). Puts tons of money into his Versailles Palace.
1644 - 1912
Manchurian dynasty that seized control of China after the decline of the Ming; forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from Vietnam and Burma to the south
The Age of Enlightenment
1650 - 1700
A broad intellectual movement in 18th‐century Europe that advocated the use of reason in the re‐evaluation of accepted ideas.
Thomas Hobbes writes Leviathan
the book describes his theory that an absolute government was the only means of balancing human interests and desires with their rights of life and property.
Reign of Kangxi
1662 - 1722
Leader of the Qing Dynasty,
he reduced government expenses and lowered taxes.
He gained the support of intellectuals by offering government positions and enjoyed the company of Jesuits at court.
Attempted Ottoman Siege of Vienna
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This resulted in a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
1721 - 1917
Reign of Qianlong
1735 - 1796
thegrandson of Kangxi. The empire reached height under him; largest empire
Seven Years War
1754 - 1763
Worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land.
Reign of Catherine the Great
1762 - 1796
Empress who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russian territory.
Writer who fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech.