Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
1405 - 1433
1405 Zheng He commanded the first of seven expeditions. Goal was to spread trade and collect tribute from lesser powers across the western seas.
Invented the printing press which aided in the spread of ideas, such as the 95-theses.
1451 - 1481
Ottoman Sultan whom captured Constantinople.
1464 - 1492
Leader of Songhai that drove out the Berbers and built the largest empire in West Africa by his death in 1492
1469 - 1527
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
Vasco De Gama
1469 - 1525
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean (1498)
1473 - 1543
Proposed sun is center, not Earth. Contributed to Scientific Revolution - Copernican Revolution
1475 - 1541
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas and executed Atahualpa.
1483 - 1564
German Monk who created the 95-theses and questioned the CC and Papal. 95-theses in 1517. Seminal figure of the Protestant Reformation
1485 - 1547
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and executed Montezuma.
Rounded the Cape of Good Hope
1491 - 1556
Founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Leader during the Counter-Reformatoion
1494 - 1566
Ruled Ottoman Empire for 46 years and when it was at its height, he was also called "The Magnificent", spread the empire, many cultural interests, expanded military, millet system, devshirme system,
1500 - 1521
Last Aztec Chieftan, who was killed by Cortes in a battle.
Founded the Safavid empire
1502 - 1533
Last Inca emperor, executed by Pizarro.
1509 - 1564
Pastor during the Protestant Reformation. Calvanism. Protestant reformer
Vasco de Balboa
Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama
1519 - 1522
Led the Spanish expedition that was the first to sail around the world.
1543 - 1610
Established the Tokugawa Shogunate
1552 - 1610
The pioneer of the Jesuit effort in China. He studied Chinese and became the first Jesuit to enter China. There he learned Confucian classics and built a church in Chinese architectural style. He was sought by Chinese who wanted to succeed in the imperial examination or wanted their sons to be successful.
1556 - 1605
The greatest of the Mughal Emperors. Second half of 1500s. Descendant of Timur. Consolidated power over northern India. Religiously tolerant. Patron of arts, including large mural paintings.
1564 - 1642
Contributed to Scientific Revolution. Telescope, sun spots. "Father of Science" Astronomer
1588 - 1679
wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
1632 - 1704
Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
1638 - 1715
Longest French Reign
Elimination of feudalism
1661 - 1722
Promoted Confucian ideas and expanded the Qing empire
Peter the Great
1672 - 1725
ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to western europe, modernize and strengthen Russia
1694 - 1778
Attacked Catholic Church, French Enlightenment writer
1723 - 1790
Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"
Catherine the Great
1729 - 1796
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
1736 - 1795
Emperor of China, son of Kangxi expanded China's bounderies extensively. Would only rule for sixty years so as to not dishonor his grandfather.
He believed in individual freedoms, where everyone is equal. His idea of social contract was an agreement among individuals to create a government & society. believed in direct democracy
Holy Roman Empire
962 - 1806
The empire set up in western Europe following the coronation of Charlemagne as emperor in the year 800. It was created by the medieval papacy in an attempt to unite Christendom under one rule. At times the territory of the empire was extensive and included Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and parts of Italy and the Netherlands
1200 - 1521
1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
1368 - 1644
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
1375 - 1591
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
1400 - 1533
A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru. They ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. Ended by Pizarro, whom killed Atahualpa.
1450 - 1750
The Portuguese at this time are beginning to enter the Indian Ocean, building a system of exchange in those areas. They also had trade with the americas and had their own people there.
1526 - 1857
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; a minority of Muslims ruled over a majority of Hindus.
Built in the Ming Dynasty, was a stunning monument in Bejing built for Yonglo. All commoners and foreigners were forbidden to enter without special permission.
a philosophy that emerged in Song-dynasty China; it revived Confucian thinking while adding in Buddhist and Daoist elements
1450 - 1750
the forced removal of Africans from their homeland to serve as slaves in the Americas
1450 - 1750
the trading system between the Americas, England and Africa; Africa would give slaves and rum to the Americas, including the West Indies; America would offer timber, tobacco, fish, and flour; England would mainly process and ship back
1481 - 1834
This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
The global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization. Sent from the Americas were crops like corn and potatoes. Europe sent other crops like cattle and pigs, and some disease of the Americas
Joint Stock Company
The company sold shares of stock to finance the outfitting of overseas expeditions; colonies founded by joint-stock companies included Jamestown (Virginia Company) and New Amsterdam (Dutch West India Company.
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Battle of Chaldiran
Ottomans defeat the Safavids at this battle.
This was a movement that began when Martin Luther nailed the 95 theses to a castle church door in Germany. It split the Church in Europe
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Catholic (Counter) Reformation
16th Century. Partly in response to the Protestant Reformation, Roman Catholic authorities undertook an enormous refor effort within their own church. To some extent their efforts represented a reaction to Protestant success. Roman Catholic authorities sought to define points of doctrine so as to clarify the differences between the Roman and Protestant churches. They also attempted to persuade the Protestants to return to the Catholic church.
East India Company
British joint-stock company that grew to be a state within a state in India; it possessed its own armed forces.
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
Founded by Samuel de Champlain in 1608 as the capital of New France, Québec became a hub for the French fur trade and the center from which French settlement in the Americas first began to expand
1641 - 1853
Rangaku - method by which Japan kept abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners because of the Tokugawa shogunate's policy of national isolation
7 Years' War
1756 - 1763
Fought in both continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in Indian and North America
A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics.
"Must Know Dates"
Ottomans capture Constantinople under Mehmet ll.
Dias rounded Cape of Good Hope.
Columbus/ Reconquista of Spain. Spanish Inquisition.
1st slaves brought to the Americas.
Martin Luther questioned the CC and the power of the pope, creating the 95-theses which were aided by the printing press.
Cortez conquers the Aztecs and kills Montezuma
Pizarro toppled the Inca while taking over this portion of the America's. He executed Atahualpa, the last Inca emperor.
Battle of Lepanto, Ottoman Navy defeated here.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada by the British, Philip ll and Elizabeth.
Battle of Sekigahara - unifaction of Japan - Beginning of Tokugawa rule.
Foundation of Jamestown. First colonization in the America's, but went through rough times.
1618 - 1648
Thirty Years War. War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia
Ottomans tried to take Vienna, but were unsuccessful. This starts their downfall.
Glorious Revolution/English Bill of Rights. Treaty of Nerchinsk, Qing, Russia - Amur River