Cold War Assignment

Soviet Leader

Joseph Stalin

January 1, 1945 - March 5, 1953

Georgy Malenkov

March 5, 1953 - February 8, 1955

Nikita Khrushchev

March 27, 1955 - October 14, 1964

Leonid Brezhnev

October 14, 1964 - November 10, 1982

1964- 1982- Leonid Brezhnev- Leonid Brezhnev was the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Brezhnev was second to Joseph Stalin and under his rule the influence of communism grew significantly. He helped spread communism and was a bigger threat to the US.

Yuri Andropov

November 12, 1982 - February 9, 1984

Konstantin Chernenko

February 13, 1984 - March 10, 1985

Mikhail Gorbachev

March 11, 1985 - December 25, 1991

1985 Gorbachev- Full name is Mikhail Gorbachev, he is a former soviet statesman and the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1988-1991. He played a big role in ending the Soviet Union and the Cold War. He was awarded many peace medals for the contribution in ending the Cold War.

United States President

Franklin D. Roosevelt

January 1, 1945 - April 12, 1945

Harry S. Truman

April 13, 1945 - January 20, 1953

Dwight D. Eisenhower

January 20, 1953 - January 20, 1961

John F. Kennedy

January 20, 1961 - November 22, 1963

Lyndon B. Johnson

November 22, 1963 - January 20, 1969

Richard Nixon

January 20, 1969 - August 9, 1974

Gerald Ford

August 9, 1974 - January 20, 1977

Jimmy Carter

January 20, 1977 - January 20, 1981

Ronald Reagan

January 20, 1981 - January 20, 1989

1981-1989- Ronald Reagan- Ronald Reagan played a huge role in ridding of communist movement and Soviet Union. He ended detente, he took out the soldiers in Vietnam, he was responsible for the Reagan Doctrine and overthrew communist governments.

George H. W. Bush

January 20, 1989 - January 20, 1993

Events

Yalta Conference

1945

March 3, 1945- Yalta- A Conference between the big 3 leaders of the worlds strongest nations post WWII. It was between Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt and the decisions of what to do with Germany were discussed here. Tension grew at these conferences and because of them.

Arms Race

1945 - 1991

1945-1991-Arms Race- A nuclear arms race between US and USSR where both sides stockpiled and grew their arsenal of nuclear weapons. The arms race started slowing down after the agreement to put a cap on nuclear weapons between both sides and eventually came to an end at the end of the Cold War.

Iron Curtain Speech

1946

1946-Iron Curtain Speech- Speech given by Winston Churchill in Missouri speaking of a border set between Russia and Western Europe in order to refrain from communist influence. Pretty much a big statement saying western Europe and US are opposing communism.

Truman Doctrine

1947

March- 1947- A policy set forth by Harry S. Truman stating that the US would help Greece and Turkey fight communist influence and to help their economy and military. This again grew tension against the USSR.

Marshall Plan

1947

1947-Marshall Plan- A plan devised by the US in order to help any country in Europe to rebuild economies and to reduce the influence of and fight against communism spreading. Caused a great number of tension.

H.U.A.C.

1947

1947- H.U.A.C.- The House Un-American Activities Committee was a committee created by the senate to find suspicious activities mainly in the Cold War against communists. H.U.A.C. was responsible for the Hollywood Blacklist where over 300 artists were convicted of ties with communism. This was a major player in the witch hunt during the Cold War.

Berlin Airlift

1948 - 1949

1948-1949- Berlin Airlift- Berlin, the capital of Germany, was divided into four sections and USSR blocked off connection to their part and starved them. The US airlifted goods in cargo planes and dropped off shipments daily. This was the first action taken by the US against the USSR

Alger Hiss

1948

1948- Alger Hiss- Alger Hiss was an American lawyer who was convicted of being a soviet spy then convicted of perjury as well as the spy accusation. This case shows the scare of Communism in America and the witch hunt that went on during the Cold War because of the paranoia.

NATO

1949

1949-NATO- The North Atlantic Treaty Organization which was a treaty signed by many countries around the world that were anti-communism. The treaty agreed on defending one another in a fight against communism if anything ever happened.

Soviets Detonation of the Atomic Bomb

1949

Aug 1949- Soviets Detonation of the Atomic Bomb- The Soviets successfully detonated their first nuclear weapon, they became the first country to do it after the U.S. After this they became one of the strongest powers in the world and scared many countries. This caused tension and increased the danger of nuclear weapons seeing as the two countries now both contain nuclear weapons.

Korean War

1950

1950- Korean War- NK invades SK and asks help from UN members. The US occupies SK and helps fight off NK and communism. This was a help in fighting off the influence of communism.

McCarthyism/ Red Scare

1950 - 1956

1950-1956-McCarthyism- is the practice of making accusations of treason with no evidence. The same thing as the witch hunt for communism during the Cold War. McCarthyism caused a great number of job losses and ruined reputations in the US during the the McCarthy era.

Domino Theory

1950

1950-1980s- Domino Theory- This was a theory during the 50s to the 80s that promoted the idea that if China fell to communism then other countries around it would fall under as hell like a domino effect when one of the dominoes falls.

H Bomb

1952

1952- H Bomb- With the USSR detonating its first nuclear bomb to enter the arms race the US developed the first H Bomb or Hydrogen bomb. This was stronger then the nuclear bomb and put fear in USSR and increased the stakes of the Arms Race

Chinese Communist Revolution

1952

1946-1952 Chinese Communist Revolution- The second part of the Chinese Civil War also known as the War of Liberation. The communists fought the nationalists and gained control of China with the new leader, Mao Ze Dong. This had a big impact on the Cold War because it is another force that joined the the communists and one new enemy for the U.S.

Neutron Bomb

1952

1952- Neutron Bomb- The Neutron Bomb also known as the H Bomb, was a concept and bomb developed in 1952 that was stronger than any nuclear bomb in the world. It gave us a big edge in the arms race and scared the Soviet Union.

Stalin's Death

1953

Mar 1953 Stalin's Death- The cause Stalins death is unknown, some believe it to be natural and some believe it to be the cause of warfarin, a powerful rat poison. After Stalin's seath a huge power struggle occurred between eight senior members of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. This was important because it mapped out what was to be of the Cold War after his death and how the war would turn out.

Rosenberg Spy Case

1953

June, 1953- Rosenberg Spy Case- Ethel Greenless and Julius Rosenberg were a couple convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage during the time of the Cold War. They were believed to leaking top secret information about the atom bomb to USSR. The atomic bomb was revolutionary and since the USSR had them then it became a huge problem for the US.

Massive Retaliation

1954

1954-Massive Retaliation- A Military Doctrine and nuclear strategy to retaliate according to the size of attack by the enemy. This was created mainly because of the USSR containing a nuclear weapon and the US having to be prepared for anything.

Dien Bien Phu

1954

1954- Dien Bien Phu- Dien Bien Phu was a base in South Vietnam where the french based itself. They were attacked and driven out of Vietnam. French influence ceased to exist this point on. This was a big part of the beginning of the Vietnam War and caused division of 19th parallel.

McCarran

1954

1933- 1954 Pat McCarran- Senator of Nevada who during World War II he became one of the Senates most powerful anticommunist. Also was the chief sponsor of the McCarran Internal Security Act which investigated communist actions and communist front organizations in the US. He played a big role in fighting against communism.

Guatemalan Coup

1954

June 1954- Guatemalan Coup- A CIA covert operation that deposed President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman and took over the government because of the growing communism in Guatemala. The CIA invaded Guatemala through Honduras. This was an attempt at fighting communism because the great scare it caused on the US.

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

1955-1975- Vietnam War- War between North Vietnam which are communists and South Vietnam which are Democratic. The Chinese helped the North while the US helps the south after the US cancelled the plan for elections of a new government fearing the victory of a Communist government. US loses many men and eventually pulls out.

Warsaw Pact

1955

1955-1991- Warsaw Pact- The Warsaw Pact was a treaty similar to NATO between eight communist countries. It was mainly a mutual defense agreement where each country would protect another during an attack from a democratic country for example the US.

Khrushchev's Secret Speech

1956

Feb. 1956- Khrushchev's Secret Speech Speech giving by Nikita Khrushchev which made Stalin look like the bad guy to the people of the USSR and he wanted to go back to the way Vladmir Lenin ruled things. This was huge because a great deal of tension was raised by Stalin and if somebody that takes power who doesn't follow in Stalin's footsteps.

Sputnik

1957

1957- Sputnik- The first artificial Earth satellite launched by Russia, this satellite led to the to beginning of the space race. Fear grew in US of Sputnik being able to launch a nuclear weapon at the US

Space Race

1957 - 1975

1957- Space Race- Began with the launch of Sputnik and the scare in the US of USSR using the same technology to send nuclear missiles in to the country. Arguments can result of the winning in both sides . This caused more tension between the USSR and the US on top of the Arms Race.

U-2 Spy Plane Affair

1960

1960- U-2 Spy Plane Affair- U-2 was a spy plane that belonged to the US and was shot down over the air space in the USSR while Eisenhower was president. Huge embarrassment of the US and there was supposed to try and become friendly but the affair ruined all hope and plans

Fidel Castro

1960

1960-Fidel Castro- Communist leader of Cuba who aligned with the USSR because both are communist parties and have a common enemy. Teamed up to caused the Cuban Missile Crisis. Communist threat grew because of Fidel Castro.

Bay of Pigs

1961

1961- Bay of Pigs- Unsuccessful invasion on Cuba by the US in order to try and overthrow the Cuban government but ended up as a huge embarrassment and failure. This was a loss for the US in the fight against communism.

Berlin Wall

1961

1961- Berlin Wall- A wall created by the German Democratic Republic to block off the East side of Berlin and Germany. This caused a great increase in tension between the members of NAto and the members of the Warsaw Pact.

M.A.D.

1961

1961 M.A.D.- Acronym for Mutual Assured Destruction which is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy which states that a yield of weapons of mass destruction such as the nuclear bomb would result in a complete world destruction. This is important because the US and USSR both had enough nuclear bombs to blow up Planet Earth several times and it showed the importance and the dangerousness of the US and USSR having nuclear weapons.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

1962- Cuban Missile Crisis- The USSR and the Cubans teamed up to set up nuclear weapons in Cuba so they have enough range to hit the US if necessary. JFK deployed a navel quarantine around the island of Cuba but a nuclear war almost broke out. This was the closest the world has been to mass destruction.

Hotline

1963

The hotline was a line of communication between the US and USSR as a preventative measure for any miscommunication or altercation that could possibly lead to a nuclear war. This was a step forward in progress to ending the Cold War.

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

1963

1963- Nuclear Test Ban Treaty- An agreement between the Us, Uk and USSR that prohibited the tests of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, outer space, and under water. This was a preventative measure taken to insure the safety of millions of civilians from radiation.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

1964

1964- Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- This resolution was an authorized military action in Southeast Asia that allowed the US to take military action without declaring war. This happened after the sinking of the USS Maddox. This was an attempt by the US at stopping the spread of communism.

Indonesian Coup

1965

Sept 30 1965- Indonesian Coup- Indonesia kind of overthrew their president and brought Suharto into power. Sukarno increased power of the Indonesian Communist party or PKI and it penetrated the military. A group inside the army then killed six of the most senior officers and the PKI were blamed for the killing although it was the fault of the 30 September Movement.

Six Day War

1967

1967- Six Day War- A six day war started by Israel against Syria, Egypt and Jordan because the Israelis believed that these countries were plotting an attack against Israel. The Israelis took over Sinai, Gola Heights and the West bank of the Jordan River.

USS Liberty 1967

1967

June 1967- USS Liberty- This was an attack on a US tech research ship named the USS Liberty by an Israeli Air Force jet and Navy motor torpedo boats. 34 crew members died and 171 were injured during the Six-Day War. It was an accident and the USS liberty was mistaken to be an Egyptian navy ship.

Trsscomm

1967

1967- Trsscomm- Trsscomm was a system that delivered real-time intercepts to Washington by bouncing streams of waves off of the moon. This was a huge tool to the spying of USSR and was used by the Liberty one of the only ships to have have this technology and was sunk by the Israelis.

Prague Spring Rebellion

1968

1968- Prague Spring Rebellion- Prague Spring was a time of liberalization in Czechoslovakia under the USSR rule. Czechoslovakia wanted to loosen up restrictions on media, speech and travel but the USSR was not happy. The USSR sent in Warsaw Pact troops to occupy until 1991 which was the fall of USSR.

Tet Offensive

1968

1968-Tet Offensive- A military campaign during the Vietnam war by forces of the Viet Cong against South Vietnam, US and its allies. This broke agreements of a cease fire treaty for the two days of the new year in Vietnam but the Viet Cong broke it and the US lost a battle against communism.

Vietnamization

1968

1968- Vietnamization- Policy by the Richard Nixon administration during the Vietnam War as a retaliation of the Viet Cong's Tet Offensive. This policy proposed training South Vietnam's military and giving them weapons so the number of the U.S. troops would decrease and they could come back home. This was part of fighting North Vietnam and communism.

Brezhnev Doctrine

1968

1968- Brezhnev Doctrine- The Brezhnev Doctrine was a policy proposed by Leonid Brezhnev and its purpose was to justify the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Soviets and basically showed all the countries in the Warsaw Pact that they are not allowed to leave or go agains a nation's communist party.

John Walker

1968

1968-1985 John Walker- A former United States Navy Chief Warrant Officer who was convicted of spying and finally reached a plea agreement with federal prosecutors which required him to testify against his conspirator and provide full details of espionage activities. It is believed that John Walker had a huge part in the Naval advancement of the Soviet Union because of his spying.

USS Scorpion

1968

June 1968- USS Scorpion- The USS Scorpion was the sixth submarine named Scorpion and it was a declared lost on June 5 1968. It was a nuclear weeping submarine so it carried a nuke and it disappeared along with 99 men. The reason it sunk was because of mechanical malfunctions within the submarine. The strange part was that it disappeared when it was asked to observe Soviet Naval activities which were probably pretty suspicious.

SALT

1969

Nov. 1969- SALT- SALT stands for Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and consisted of talk between the US and the USSR to reach an agreement to decrease the number of nuclear weapons on both sides. This decreased the risk of a nuclear war outbreaking and decreased tension.

Detente

1971

1971- Detente- Detente was a term to describe the easing of the geo-political tensions between the USSR and the US. During this time treaties were signed such as the SALT I, SALT II and the Helsinki Accords. This decreased the tension and took off a big edge of the Cold War.

Helsinki Accords

1975

July 1975- Helsinki Accords- The final act of the Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe which was held in Helsinki, Finland. The purpose of the conference was to improve the relations between NATO and the Warsaw Pact or Communist block and the West. This was to decrease the tension and try to rid of it during the Cold War against the Communists.

Cambodia and Khmer Rouge

1975

April 1975- Cambodia and Khmer Rouge- The Khmer Rouge, also known as the Communist Party of Kampuchea, took over Cambodia on April 17, 1975. They are also the causer of almost two millions deaths in their time of power. They were also aided by the Vietnamese. This plays into the Cold War because they were a communist party helped by the party we couldn't stop in North Vietnam.

Afghanistan War

1979 - 1989

1979-1989 Afghanistan War- The USSR and Afghan had close relations and the afghanis who opposed the USSR and communism were funded by the US and were called the Mujahideen. The Soviets sent in troops into Afghanistan to fight the Mujahideen in fear of Afghan becoming democratic or falling under the influence of the US.

Solidarity

1980

Aug 1980- Solidarity- A Polish trade union federation which was the first non-communist organization in a Warsaw Pact country. The purpose of the union was to better workers rights and for social change because they did not believe in Communism and they kind of went against communism. It was part of a Communist country but it went against Communism and this was huge.

Glasnost

1980

1980s- Glasnost- Glasnost was a policy set forth that increased openness and transparency in government institutions in the Soviet Union. This was the first sign the Soviet Union was driving apart from Communism. Glasnost literally means "openness".

SDI

1983

Mar 1983- SDI- Known as the Strategic Defense Initiative, which was proposed by Ronald Reagan, was an initiative which was to use ground and space based system to protect and decent the US from nuclear attacks. It was widely criticized and did not work what so ever. This was a plan to defend the US against its Communist enemies and nuclear weapons.

Perestroika

1986

1986- Perestroika- Perestroika was a political movement reformed in the USSR which is commonly though as the cause of dissolution in USSR because it was a form to reconstruct the political and economic system. This form was widely associated with the Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev.

INF Treaty

1988

May 1988- INF Treaty- The INF treaty, also known as the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty- was as agreement between the US and the USSR. The agreement was on the elimination of nuclear and conventional ground launched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges. This eased up the tensions between the US and USSR during Cold War.

German Reunification

1990

1990- German Reunification- This was a time in 1990 where East Germany joined back with West Germany and the Berlin Wall was taken down. This shows the end of communism and how it started to retract and communist territory decreased.