Western Civilization 241; Timeline II

Aegean Civilization

Minoan Crete

2600 BC - 1250 BC

Centered on the island of Crete, this was the earliest center of the Aegean region. Homer spoke of Crete, & it played a large part in Greek Mythology. The capital was Knossos.

Army of Knossos

1900 BC

This center of Crete had a strong Navy that kept the citizens safe.

Mycenaean Civilization

1600 BC - 1100 BC

This Greek civilization conquered the Minoans. They created a language called "Linear B" which we can read today. Mycenaeans were very destructive people and led to the Dark Age; after conquering their neighbors, they eventually fought each other.

Dark Age

1100 BC - 800 BC

Sharp cultural decline for the Greeks; the language called Linear B of the Mycenaeans even ceased to be written due to constant civil warfare.

New Greek Civilization

800 BC

The Polis, or basic unit of Greek civilization, became known as city-states with an Acropolis (high town) and an Agora (marketplace).

Homer

800 BC

In this time, Greek culture reestablished itself, so his famous blind bard wrote the Iliad & the Odyssey which described Greek "humanism" and "arete" (excellence).

Greek Colonization

750 BC - 550 BC

Key Cities: Byzantium, Neapolis, Syracuse, Nikaia, and Massilia.
Farming became very popular in the polis communities.

Hesiod

700 BC

This author wrote a book called "Theogony" which described the Olympian family tree of the gods.

Solon

640 BC - 559 BC

He was an Athenian reformer that ended debt of slaves and allowed them to take part in the assembly. He specialized in olive agriculture, and turned down the chance to become a dictator.

Pisistratus the Tyrant

546 BC - 527 BC

Became dictator of Athens & reached out to the poor, so the nobles did not like him.

Cleisthenes

508 BC

Finalized the form of Athenian government by introducing "ostracism" in which the public could collect 6000 votes to "ostracize" a man who gained too much power. He reorganized cities into 10 tribes & formed the "Counsel of 500".

Marathon

490 BC

First large battle between the Persians and Greeks where the Greeks beat the army of King Leonidas and his best 300 men which helped the Greeks slow down the Persians.

Persian Wars

490 BC - 479 BC

Athens sent ships to help people cross the Aegean Sea which angered the Persians who then tried to conquer the Greeks.

Thermopylae

480 BC

The Spartans fought the Persians here.

Salamis

480 BC

Athenians went here to defend themselves while Persians burned down Athens. With a naval encounter, the Greeks win here.

Plataea

479 BC

This was a land battle where the Persians were defeated due to forfeit.

Sparta

146 BC

End of Spartan society; it was based on warfare after having defeated Messenia and forcing that city's people to become Helots (agricultural slaves). Helots outnumbered Spartan citizens, but they were scared to rebel against these great warriors. Spartan women had more freedom than most other societies because men were busy at war.

Classical Athens

Thales

624 BC - 526 BC

Thales was 1 of the Seven Sages of Greece, & Aristotle regarded him as the 1st Greek philosopher. He started scientific revolution by ignoring mythology and using methods like geometry to become known as "the Father of Science". He was from Miletus in Asia Minor.

Sophocles

496 BC - 406 BC

This Playwright wrote "The Man Named Oedipus."

Pericles

495 BC - 429 BC

He was the dominant political voice of Athens that led its people.

Delian League

478 BC

An army and navy association of Greek city-states put together by Athenians to prepare for a 3rd attack from the Persians. It evolved from defense and turned into an empire that helped rebuild Athens.

Socrates

469 BC - 399 BC

1 of the founders of Western philosophy, he started interest in logos and ethics. He said, "I know that I know nothing."

Democritus

460 BC - 370 BC

This Pre-Socratic philosopher is known today as "The Father of Modern Science". He helped form the Atomic hypothesis.

Alcibiades

450 BC - 404 BC

He rose to power and wants to defeat Syracuse, allies of Sparta, but he fails and flees to join the Spartans who win the war in 404 BC. Afterward, Athens loses its center of politics but remains an intellectual one.

Parthenon

432 BC - 1687

This temple was built for Athena, but it was partially destroyed in 1687 by the Automen empire.

Pelopponnesian War

431 BC - 404 BC

Greeks started fighting with allies (mostly Athenians) which led Sparta to create the Peloponnesian League that dominated Corinth and Thebes specifically between 2 groups of Greeks; this was odd because they once fought together against Persia 50 years prior. Sparta wins land battles while Athens wins with their navy after Pericles dies due to plague.

Plato

429 BC - 347 BC

He created Platonic Forms: ideas are more real than physical objects because the physical can fall apart, but ideas are eternal.

Aristotle

384 BC - 322 BC

Republic: the question of Justice formed the Academy, a school for philosophy, where Aristotle became a student and started Empiricism: in order to learn the truth, you must observe the world around you to deduce facts/truth.

The Hellenistic World

Phillip of Macedon

359 BC - 336 BC

Philip was the father of Alexander the Great, & he conquered most of Greece by 338. He wanted to combine cultures of Mecedonia and Greece. Unlike the Assyrians, he did not pillage and had no horses. His war tactic was the phalanx: a large group of soldiers in 16 rows working together with spearmen in back and shields in front. He united the Greeks before dying in 336 BC.

Alexander the Great

336 BC - 323 BC

He became the head of Macedonia and Greece at age 20. With Aristotle as his tutor, he started the Hellenistic Age with 13 years of warfare. Alexander wanted to conquer land outside of Greece until there was none left to conquer. While on campaign he always kept a copy of the Iliad annotated by Aristotle and a dagger under his pillow: he was a Scholar AND warrior. He never lost a major battle. He died of fever at age 32 after a long night of drinking.

Stoicism

335 BC

This movement was started by Zeno (335-263 BC) who said, “man is rational and world is rational"; he wanted to discover how to live in harmony with laws of universe. He lived by principles of logos, living as if there were no gods.

Alexandria

332 BC

This was the biggest city in the ancient world established in Egypt by Alexander the Great had more than 1 million inhabitants. It had broad streets which made it easy to navigate, and Greek, Jewish, and Egyptian influences. It had a library and the world's 1st museum; it was a center for learning. It burned during the Christian era, and it once had a 400 foot lighthouse considered 1/7 wonders of the world; it had a huge statue of Poseidon, mirrors, & lights.

Ptolemies

323 BC - 30 BC

Monarchy in Egypt; the last Ptolemy was Cleopatra.

Seleucids

312 BC - 63 BC

Seleucids had a monarchy in Palestine/Fertile Crescent.

Epicureanism

307 BC

Started by Epicurus (342-270 BC), this philosophy says that, “all human behavior motivated by avoiding pain and pursuing pleasure" was basis for decisions; they lived simple lives because too much pleasure can cause pain. People following this way of life avoided ambition and were reclusive.

Antigonid

306 BC - 168 BC

Macedonia monarchy started by Alexander the Great's general.

Archimedes

287 BC - 212 BC

From Syracuse, Sicily, Archimedes is considered to be the DaVinci of the ancient world. He was a theorist who created the lever & pulley; he discovered the displacement of water & was killed by a Roman soldier.

Antiochus IV of Epiphanes

175 BC - 164 BC

This Greek ruler of Mesopotamia tried to force his culture on the Jews which triggered the revolt of the Maccabee's led by Judea in 167 BC. The Jews' victory is celebrated today during a holiday called Hanukkah. Antiochus banned Torah and circumcision. The Jewish victory led to the creation of modern Christianity and Islam.

Roman Republic

Etruscans

800 BC

They ruled Northern Italy before the Roman Republic began in this year. They were refined city-dwellers who produced olive oil, wine, minerals for trade. They created togas, the alphabet, & Roman numerals.

Tribal Assembly

509 BC - 27 BC

Democratic assembly of Roman citizens. During the years of the Roman Republic, citizens were organized on the basis of thirty-five tribes: four tribes (the "urban tribes") encompassed citizens inside the city of Rome, while the other thirty-one tribes (the "rural tribes") encompassed citizens outside of the city of Rome.

Centuriate Assembly

509 BC - 27 BC

1/3 assemblies in Roman constitution used to vote on legislative, electoral, and judicial matters that divided the country into 100 different groups. CONSULS (elected executives) ran for 1 year terms.

Patricians vs. Plebeians

509 BC

When Rome became a republic, the aristocrats of ancient Rome (rights based on birth) were Patricians, while the Plebeians were lower class free men.

Hannibal

247 BC - 183 BC

During the Second Punic War (218-201 BC), Hannibal took over Carthage leading forces into Spain.He invades Roman territory with army of 50,000 ,and marched across alps into Italy. He lost half his men, but won every battle. He had elephants.The Romans locked themselves in Rome.

Second Punic War

218 BC - 201 BC

Fought for control of Spain
Carthage has Hannibal now (247-183 BC)

Polybius

203 BC - 120 BC

He was a historian that said that the Greeks wrote the history of Rome because the earliest historians were Greek.
He believed the most impressive thing about the Roman Empire was it's stability.
shaped western civ in many wasy
cities of Europe: London, Parix, Vienna, all Roman cities

Roman Empire

Virgil

70 BC - 19 BC
  1. Roman equivalent of the Greek Homer…
  2. Says there was a Trojan prince named Aeneas leaves to find a new homeland & stop in the city of Carthage. Dido, queen of Carthage, is heartbroken Virgil leaves & burns herself in her palace. Aeneas settles in Rome & is the descendent of Romulus and Remus.
  3. Great literary figure during time of Emperor Augustus

Augustus Caesar, aka Octavian

31 BC - 14 AD

He was Rome's 1st emperor and was very popular.
Defeated Antony & Cleopatra. Used a carrot instead of a stick to relay power.

Nero

54 AD - 68 AD

He was a bad emperor who let his power go to his head. He competed in the Olympics and music. Under his rule, the Great Roman Fire occurred which he blamed on the Christians & ordered their deaths.

Diocletian

285 - 305

VII. Recovery under Diocletian (r.285-305)
Diocletian reorganized the empire & strengthened it but its rule became more oppressive. Emperors began to be called “dominus et deus” rather than “princeps”.

Constantine the Great

306 - 337
  1. The last effective ruler of a united Roman empire.
  2. Founded a new capital in the East in 323, which he named Constantinople.
  3. Also received Christian baptism on his deathbed.
  4. The Battle at the Milvian Bridge in 312 = painting

Early Christianity

Sadducees

516 BCE - 70 CE

A group of Jews that were active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70CE. The sect was identified by Josephus with the upper social and economic echelon of Judean society. As a whole, the sect fulfilled various political, social, and religious roles, including maintaining the Temple.

Pharisees

140 BC - 37 BC

The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews during the Second Temple period beginning under the Hasmonean dynasty (140–37 BCE) in the wake of the Maccabean Revolt

Jesus of Nazareth

7 BC - 29 AD

The central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God, and is regarded as a major Prophet in Islam.

Pontius Pilate

26 AD - 36 AD

After a brief ministry as a preacher and miracle worker, Jesus was crucified by the Roman prefect Pontius Pilate around the year 29 A.D.

Titus

70 CE

Titus destroyed the temple in Jerusalem which ended the Jewish Rebellion.

Arius

250 AD - 336 AD

Arianism: argument about relationship between Jesus and God the Father made by Arius, a Christian presbyter in Alexandria, Egypt.
Arius says, Jesus is not God, he is Gods first creation He is different and better than other beings, but not God
Very popular idea

Constantine

306 - 337

He gave religious freedom within Roman Empire.
He won a battle after a vision of a Christian symbol

Barbarian Invasions

Byzantium

330 - 1453

The Byzantine Empire (or Byzantium) is a term used by modern historians to distinguish the Constantinople-centred Roman Empire of the Middle Ages from its earlier classical existence. It is also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, primarily in the context of Late Antiquity, while the Empire was still administered with separate eastern and western political centers. It evolved from Catholic theology in the West. Its famous ruler was Justinian.

Emperor Valens

364 - 378

This Roman emperor was killed along with 2/3 of his army fighting against the Visigoths in the Battle of Adrianople in 378.

Battle of Adrianople

378

Visigoths defeat Roman army & kill 2/3 of army sent against them including the Emperor Valens

Sacks of Rome

410 - 546

Sack of Rome (410) – The city was attacked by the Visigoths, led by Alaric I. At that time, Rome was no longer the capital of the Western Roman Empire.
Sack of Rome (455) – Rome is sacked by Geiseric, King of the Vandals.
Sack of Rome (546) – Rome is sacked and depopulated by Totila, King of the Ostrogoths, during the war between the Ostrogoths and the Romans.

Atilla the Hun

434 - 453

This leader of the Huns, aka the "Scourge of God", was a terror to all mankind and a lover of war. He threatened the Romans and Germans

Vandals

455

The Vandals sack Rome, coining the term "vandalize"

Clovis

466 - 511

1st king of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler. Clovis turned into the name “Louis” which name was used for French kings thereafter.

Romulus Augustulus

476

Deposed by Odoacer (476);
Deposed the last Roman Emperor…the END of ROMAN EMPIRE.

Justinian

527 - 565

Justinian spoke Latin & tried to preserve Roman Empire
Told laws & decrees of emperors to be collected & named it Corpus Juris Civilis.
Hagia Sophia was a huge church in Constantinople but this turned into a Mosque after being conquered by the Turks
Belisarius=general who helped Justinian reconquer territory.
However, the East & West were never reunited.