1450-1750 Early Modern Era



772 - 1911

Confucianism with some Buddhism ideas.


800 - 1888

people scatter from their homeland. Africans in slave trade go away from their homeland

Joint Stock Company


owned by shareholders. each owns part of company in proportion to their ownership of the company's shares.

Forbidden City

1406 - 1420

built during Ming in the middle of Beijing in 1406-1420. was a house for emperors for 500 years

Ottomans capture Constantinople


It's Istanbul, not Constantinople!!

Spanish Inquisition

1478 - 1834

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Jews and Muslims convert to Catholic.

Columbian Exchange


Trade to and from America. Disease, people, and food.

Treaty of Tordesillas


Pope gave Spain the western hemisphere and Portugal the eastern with the Philippines and Brazil being the exceptions.

1st Slaves to Americas


from Africa.

Battle of Chaldiran


Ottomans beat Safavids

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1685

shattered unity of Roman Catholic Church. profoundly religious and encouraged skeptical attitude of authority and tradition.

Catholic (Counter) Reformation

1545 - 1563

in answer to protestant reformation. reaffirm papal authority, bible is final authority, educate priests, bishops reside in dioses, stop sale of indulgences. Index

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

part of catholic reformation to counteract protestant reformation

Battle of Lepanto


Defeat of Ottoman Navy

Defeat of Spanish Armada by the British


fire ships

Battle of Sekigahara


Unification of Japan. Beginning of Tokugawa rule

East India Company

1600 - 1874

gained territory in India and traded spices. Dutch, French, British

Foundation of Jamestown



1607 - 1705

first permanent English settlement in Americas.



French port in fur trade.

30 Years War

1618 - 1648

protestants and catholics in Bohemia

Dutch Learning

1641 - 1853

during time when japan was closed to foreigners, developed by japan to keep western technology and medicine


1650 - 1800

change way of thinking. use REASON to challenge ideas and use scientific method to further knowledge.

Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna


start of Great Turkish War

Glorious Revolution/English Bill of Rights


Treaty of Nerchinsk

Triangle Trade

1700 - 1879

slaves go from Africa to the Americas. goods go from England to Africa. finished products go to England from the Americas.

7 Years' War

1754 - 1763

driven by antagonism between Great Britain and the Bourbons. end of French empire in the Americas.


Zheng He

1371 - 1433

great Chinese maritime explorer. made voyages in the Indian Ocean. greatly helped China in the Indian Ocean maritime trade.

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Portuguese royal prince, soldier, and patron of explorers. sent many sailing expeditions down Africa's west coast, but didn't go himself. Expeditions to create needed maps of West African Coast, defeat the Muslims, spread Christianity, and establish trade routes. Helped begin Great Age of Discovery.

Johannes Gutenberg

1398 - 1468

german. invented printing press, which helped spread protestant revolution.

Martin Luther

1403 - 1546

German priest that started Protestant Reformation in 1517. 95 theses. faith and faith alone.

Mehmed II

1429 - 1481

Sultan of Ottoman empire. Conquered Constantinople and brought end to Byzantine Empire.

Bartolomeu Dias

1450 - 1500

Sent by Portuguese King John II to explore coast of Africa and find way to Indian Ocean. rounded southernmost tip of Africa in January, 1488. Portuguese named the tip the Cape of Good Hope and Dias lost at sea during expedition around Cape in 1500.

Christopher Columbus

1451 - 1506

Italian. 'discovered' new world in 1492 on expedition sponsored by King Ferdinand of Spain.

Vasco da Gama

1460 - 1528

Portuguese explorer. 1497- commissioned by Portuguese king to find maritime route to the East. succeeded. made two other voyages to India and was named Portuguese viceroy in India in 1524.

Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

in West Africa, founder of Songhay empire. called "Ali the Great". reigned 1464-1492. Songhay passed Mali at its peak during his rule.


1466 - 1520

ninth ruler of Tenochtitlan in Aztec empire. Aztec at peak during his reign. killed during initial stages of Spanish conquest of Mexico. first contact between indigenous Mesoamericans and Europeans took place during his reign.

Niccolo Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

father of modern political theory. Italian. contributed to a number of important discourses in Western thought(political theory, history, historiography, Italian literature, principles of warfare, and diplomacy). Philosopher and humanist during Renaissance in Florence.Today, Machiavellian means corrupt government because of his bad reputation. He bcame associated with corrupt ruling when he wrote "Prince" to gain the favor of the Medici, but neither they nor the public agreed.

Francisco Pizarro

1471 - 1541

Spanish conquistador. Traveled through much of Pacific coast of America along Peru. Conquered Inca empire, killing Atahualpa.

Nicolaus Copernicus

1473 - 1543

founder of modern astronomy. came up with principles of heliocentric astronomy.(sun-centered). earth rotates daily on axis and movement affects what people saw in heavens.

Vasco de Balboa

1475 - 1519

Spanish explorer. first european to see eastern shore of Pacific Ocean. sighted ocean in 1513 and claimed for Spain

Ferdinand Magellan

1480 - 1521

1519 with support of King Charles V of Spain, set out to circumnavigate the globe. Assembled fleet of ships and proved the earth was round. died before completing his voyage.

Hernan Cortes

1485 - 1547

Spanish conquistador. conquered Aztec empire. brought some of Mexico under King of Castile's rule in 16th century.

Shah Ismail

1487 - 1524

Safavid founder. sent Shia preachers to Anatolia for rebellion among the Turks in the Ottoman Empire.

Dias rounded Cape of Good Hope


where he was later lost at sea

Ignatius Loyola

1491 - 1556

Founded Society of Jesuits to educate priests during Catholic Reformation.

Columbus/Reconquista of Spain


discover new world, Ferdinand and Isabella


1494 - 1566

the Magnificent. 10th and longest reigning Sultan of Ottoman Empire. expanded empire to edge of Western Europe. public works in Islamic world.renovations in the Dome of the Rock.


1497 - 1533

When father died and divided the kingdom, had a bloody civil war to determine who would rule all of Inca. Won in 1532. Captured by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro, who executed him. ending the Inca

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

from France. Calvinism(simplifies Lutherism) in Switzerland, France, and Scotland. Absolute power and supremacy of God.

Martin Luther/95 Theses


Started Protestant Reformation

Cortez conquered the Aztecs


capture Tenochtitlan

Pizarro toppled the Inca


kill Atahualpa


1542 - 1605

third Mughal emperor. Akbar the Great. religiously tolerant and influenced art and culture.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

1543 - 1616

founder of Tokugawa dynasty of shoguns. born in times of civil war. held hostage by opposing clan when he was four and raised in their court. helped to bring peace and unity to Japan. encouraged foreign trade, which was later ended under his successors.

Matteo Ricci

1552 - 1610

Jesuit missionary in China.

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Italian physicist and astronomer. built telescope(improving spyglass). first to look at moon through telescope and found it mountainous and pitted, not smooth. Found four of the moons circling Jupiter, studied Saturn, observed phases of Venus, studied sunspots on sun. believed Copernicus' heliocentric theory.

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Social Contract= cede rights to an absolute ruler, abuses of power are price to pay for order.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Social contract- between government and people who are governed. people should come together for greater good. if their is an abusive ruler, it is the people's responsibility to overthrow them. Tabula rosa-blank slate. second treatise of civil government.

Louis XIV

1638 - 1715

King of France. Absolute monarch. I am the state!


1654 - 1722

second emperor of Manchu Qing Dynasty. reigned for longest period in history of China. signed the Treaty of Nerchinsk. had great military glory and civic achievements. propelled China's feudal system , recovered the war destructed economy, and initiated a period of great prosperity.


1694 - 1778

french writer and public activist. helped define the Enlightenment.


1711 - 1799

reign was most prosperous period of Qing Dynasty. sixth emperor of Qing. dealt with relationship between Manchu, Han, and other ethnic minorities skillfully.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Genevan philosopher. concern was to find way on conserving human freedom in a world where human beigns were increasingly dependent on one another for the satisfaction of their needs. influenced French revolution and development of modern political, sociological, and educational thoughts.

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Scottish economist. Laissez' Faire. Wealth of Nation. Self-interested capitalism.

Peter/Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

A few months after getting the crown, Peter died and his wife Catherine ruled 162-1796. They pushed for westernization in Russia.


Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1806

Charles V. trouble under protestant revolution. couldnt make unified state. had pressure from french and ottomans


1299 - 1922

gunpowder. religiously tolerant. islam


1340 - 1533

gained independence form Mali. salt and gold. Sunni Ali


1368 - 1644

clean China of Mongol rule


1415 - 1999

ports in indian ocean trade


1427 - 1521

triple alliance. tribute empire based in Tenochtitlan


1438 - 1533

largest empire in pre-columbian America. Andean region


1474 - 1700

Christopher Columbus. Ferdinand and Isabella


1485 - 1707

Protestant reformation. constitutional monarchy. civil war


1492 - 1791

Louis XIV=economic development. sun king. wars


1501 - 1736

Shia, religious conflict with Ottoman and Mughal


1526 - 1857

inida. islam vs. Hindu. sunni

Tokugawa Shogunate

1603 - 1868

brought unification to japan. japanese military government. feudal


1644 - 1911

Manchurian. last if Chinese imperial dynasties


1721 - 1917

Westernization. furs. Peter and Catherine