Meeting among the great powers of Europe, i.e., Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia (France participated in some of the decisions) in Vienna, Austria from September 1814 to June 1815. These powers met to arrange a peace settlement after almost a decade of war against Napoleon. The leaders of the great powers who represented themselves at Vienna were Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick Wilhelm III of Prussia, and Czar Alexander I of Russia. The leaders of Great Britain and France were represented by their foreign ministers, Viscount Castlereagh and Prince Talleyrand, respectively. Prince Klemens von Metternich, the foreign minister of Austria, however, dominated the conference. Metternich had three goals at the congress: first, he wanted to prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries; second, he wanted to restore a balance of power (see above), so that no country would be a threat to others; and third, he wanted to restore Europe’s royal families to the thrones they held before the Napoleonic Wars. He accomplished his first goal by making the countries around France stronger (the Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic united to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands; thirty-nine German states were loosely joined to create the German Confederation, which was dominated by Austria; Switzerland became an independent state; and the Kingdom of Sardinia was strengthened by annexing Genoa). Metternich’s second goal was accomplished by having France return to its borders of 1790 and relinquishing all territory conquered by Napoleon. Additionally, France was forced to pay an indemnity and accept an army of occupation for five years. Lastly, Metternich accomplished his third goal by restoring the Bourbons to the thrones in France, Spain, and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies (the brother of Louis XVI inherited the throne of France as Louis XVIII).