Educational Timeline

History Timeline

Printing Press

1437

Johann Gutenberg became the first in Europe to print with movable type cast in molds.

Jamestown is settled

1607

Jamestown, Virginia, is settled as what would become the first permanent English colony in North America.

Salem witch trials

1692

Salem witch trials in Massachusetts.

American Revolutionary War

1775 - 1783

American Civil War

1861 - 1865

American Civil War between the Union and seceding Confederacy.

World War 1

1914 - 1918

World War 2

1939 - 1945

Math Timeline

Infinity

400

The Bakhshali manuscript is written by Jaina mathematicians, which describes a theory of the infinite containing different levels of infinity, shows an understanding of indices[disambiguation needed], as well as logarithms to base 2, and computes square roots of numbers as large as a million correct to at least 11 decimal places

Trigonometric functions

500

Aryabhata writes the “Aryabhata-Siddhanta”, which first introduces the trigonometric functions and methods of calculating their approximate numerical values. It defines the concepts of sine and cosine, and also contains the earliest tables of sine and cosine values (in 3.75-degree intervals from 0 to 90 degrees)

Law of sines is discovered

1000

Law of sines is discovered by Muslim mathematicians

Hindu-Arabic numerals

1202

Leonardo Fibonacci demonstrates the utility of Hindu-Arabic numerals in his Liber Abaci (Book of the Abacus).

Double-entry bookkeeping

1494

Luca Pacioli: first codification of the Double-entry bookkeeping system, which slowly developed in previous centuries

Cubic equations

1539

Gerolamo Cardano learns Tartaglia's method for solving depressed cubics and discovers a method for depressing cubics, thereby creating a method for solving all cubics.

Napierian logarithms

1614

John Napier discusses Napierian logarithms in Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio,

Analytic geometry

1619

René Descartes discovers analytic geometry

Imaginary numbers

1637

First use of the term imaginary number by René Descartes; it was meant to be derogatory.

Probability theory

1654

Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat create the theory of probability,

Fundamental theorem of calculus

1665

Isaac Newton works on the fundamental theorem of calculus and develops his version of infinitesimal calculus,

Infinitesimal calculus

1673

Gottfried Leibniz develops his version of infinitesimal calculus,

e

1690

Jacob Bernoulli discovered this constant by studying a question about compound interest:

An account starts with $1.00 and pays 100 percent interest per year. If the interest is credited once, at the end of the year, the value of the account at year-end will be $2.00. What happens if the interest is computed and credited more frequently during the year?

The calculus of variations

1696

Jakob Bernoulli and Johann Bernoulli solve brachistochrone problem, the first result in the calculus of variations,

Normal distribution

1733

Abraham de Moivre introduces the normal distribution to approximate the binomial distribution in probability,

Differential equations

1734

Leonhard Euler introduces the integrating factor technique for solving first-order ordinary differential equations,

Non-Euclidean geometry

1830

Nikolai Lobachevsky created Non-Euclidean geometry

Boolean algebra

1847

George Boole formalizes symbolic logic in The Mathematical Analysis of Logic, defining what is now called Boolean algebra,

Riemannian geometry

1854

Bernhard Riemann introduces Riemannian geometry,

Möbius strip

1858

August Ferdinand Möbius invents the Möbius strip,

Quintic equations

1858

Charles Hermite solves the general quintic equation by means of elliptic and modular functions,

Game theory

1928

John von Neumann begins devising the principles of game theory and proves the minimax theorem,

Fractals

1975

Benoît Mandelbrot publishes Les objets fractals, forme, hasard et dimension,

Science Timeline

Gunpowder

1250

During the second half of the thirteenth century, gunpowder became known in Europe, perhaps introduced from China through the Mongols. "Knowledge of the explosive properties of salpetre, sulphur, and charcoal seems to have been perfected [in China] about 1000 " (Crombie 1952:192). The evolution of the gun in China appears to have been, first, bamboo flame throwers, then metal tubed flame throwers, then arrow throwers, and, after 1280, ball throwers (O'Connell 2002:113)

Copernicus

1512

1512, Nikolaus Kopérnik, better known as Copernicus, circulated a manuscript, the Commentariolus, which hypothesized that the Earth was a planet and planets revolved in circles and epicircles around the Sun, that the Earth rotated daily, and regressions in planetary orbits were explained by the Earth's motions (Park 1990:143). The problem, as he saw it, was to save the appearance of the phenomena with an hypothsis which was compatible with the principle of physics that hypotheses be founded in the truth of nature, and to demonstrate that to reject this hypothesis meant that the appearances were not saved.

Planetary motion

1609

Johannes Kepler: first two laws of planetary motion

The cell is discovered

1635

Robert Hooke discovers the Cell

Gas laws

1662

Robert Boyle: Boyle's law of ideal gas

Microscope

1675

Anton van Leeuwenhoek Observes Microorganisms by Microscope

Classical physics

1687

Newton discovers laws of motion, law of universal gravitation, basis for classical physics

Genetics

1865

Gregor Mendel: Mendel's laws of inheritance, basis for genetics

Entropy

1865

Rudolf Clausius: Definition of Entropy

Periodic table

1869

Dmitri Mendeleev: Periodic table

Electromagnetism

1873

James Clerk Maxwell: Theory of electromagnetism

X-rays

1895

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovers x-rays

Radioactivity

1896

Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity

Quantum theory

1900

Max Planck: Planck's law of black body radiation, basis for quantum theory

The atom

1913

Niels Bohr: Model of the atom

Atomic number

1913

Henry Moseley: defined atomic number

General relativity

1915

Albert Einstein: theory of general relativity

Schrödinger equation

1925

Erwin Schrödinger: Schrödinger equation (Quantum mechanics)

The neutron

1932

James Chadwick: Discovery of the neutron