Reducing CO2 emissions of developed countries to 20% below 1990 levels by 2005 (they've actually increased); African countries were not willing to accept any new commitments; Columbia said that developing countries should not assume the same obligations as developed countries
COP 3 Kyoto
MEDCs (US and EU) agreed to an overall reduction of greenhouse gases 5.2% by 2008 relative to 1990s - IPCC said 60% was necessary - v disappointing; oil and coal industries had huge campaigns to discredit the conference
Kyoto Protocol - industrialised countries approved legally binding targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions + flexibility mechanisms where some countries can 'trade' their emissions (though some major countries dropped out)
COP 15 Copenhagen
Increased public awareness massively - NGOs, campaigns, business and media coverage; countries announced low carbon economic plans moving forward - Copenhagen Accord (expressed clear political intent of limiting increase of less than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels).
Not legally binding; emission reduction targets not quantified; unclear how targets would be achieved.
IPCC 5th Report
Concludes causes of climate change are economic and population growth + higher levels of CO2, methane and nitrous oxide. Effects are global warming, snow/ice diminishing, sea level rising, ocean acidification, more extreme weather events. Solutions suggested include soil conservation, green infrastructure, reforestation, seed banks, desalinisation.
COP 21 Paris
Countries put forward intended contributions to emissions reductions through nationally determined plans reviewed every 5 years; aims to keep global temperature rise this century below 2 degrees Celsius, 1.5 degrees where possible; calls for zero net anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions reached by the second half of the century; issue of transferring funds from MEDCs to LEDCs; unlikely to actually work; emissions have only continued to increase
COP 25 Madrid
'The European Green New Deal' - EU emissions to 0 by 2050; 73 countries committed to net zero emissions by 2050; not enough at all - 'total disconnect between what science requires and what climate negotiations are delivering' - 2050 is too late