Jean – Jacques Rousseau wrote books that contributed to the educational reforms in America and Europe. His book “Emile” encouraged manipulation and direction of children’s actions and thoughts. According to Rousseau, tutoring provided the beneficial means of learning to students.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
1746 - 1827
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi promoted a strong community – minded consciousness, in which children learn through reflecting upon experiences. He was goal – oriented towards educating children and mothers in poverty. However, his methods of hands – on learning and approach became popular amongst all classes in societies, internationally.
Elizabeth Palmer Peabody
Elizabeth Palmer Peabody opened the first English – Speaking Kindergarten in Boston, supporting hands – on learning.
1880 - 1961
Arnold Gesell promoted the role of parents and teachers as researchers, emphasizing the importance of careful documentation and observations. Also, he turned the university lab school into a significant component of the child study movement.
Rudolf Steiner developed Waldorf Programs to educate the whole child. This incorporated art into core subjects, allowing children to learn through self – discovery. Examples include cooking, art projects, storytelling, singing, puppet shows, dress – up, and play.
Barbara Biber founded “A Dream for the Nursery Years” Comprehensive pre-school program, which involved parents, healthcare professionals, psychologists, and educators for best child care. This gave birth to the Head Start.
Loris Malaguzzi founded the Reggio Emilia Approach in Italy. This approach evolves around intellectual development through symbolic representation. Children express themselves through natural languages, drawing, painting, working in clay, sculpting, constructing, conversing, and dramatic play. Discussion are documented through visible modes of learning, such as notes’ activities, videos, and photographs.
H. Ross Perot
H. Ross Perot advocated for a full day in Kindergarten and sought to educate disadvantaged children.
Texas Governor Bush and First Lady’s Policy Conference on Early Childhood Development and Brain Research
Texas Governor Bush and First Lady’s Policy Conference on Early Childhood Development and Brain Research took place in Austin. Well – known speakers on brain research, early language, and literacy development presented.
President Obama's Preschool for All Initiative
President Obama promoted access to high quality pre – schools to all children across America. This became known as The Preschool for All Initiative. Texas Pre – K Guidelines Were updated, as well.