Ancient Greece practiced destruction of imperfect children
2700 B.C. - 650 B.C.
Cataract surgery by “couching” (lens depression) performed by Skar, chief physician in Ancient Egypt
Egyptians treat eye disease & educate people with visual impairment
Homer, blind poet wrote "Iliad" & "Odyssey"
1200 B.C. - 850 B.C.
many debates about time period & whether he was blind
Rome tossed imperfect children into the Tiber River
763 B.C. - 337 A.D.
Pharaoh with visual impairment regains his throne
Brotherhood of the Blind organize in Europe
476 A.D. - 1450 A.D.
John Milton writes "Paradise Lost" after becoming blind
Esther Elizabeth von Waldkirch became the first blind person to learn to write
Henry Mill, English civil engineer patent the 1st mechanical writing machine to aid the blind
Valentin Hauy founds the 1st school for the blind
Louis Braille develops Braille
New England Asylum for the Blind opens
Snellen Chart Invented
Henrman Snellen, Dutch eye doctor, invents the chart to test visual acuity
Act to Promote the Education of the Blind, P.L. 45-186
congress authorized funds for the American Printing House for the Blind (APH)
Helen Keller's story, "The Story of My Life" was published
P.L. 59-288 modified the requirements of P.L. 45-186
New York State makes education mandatory for blind students
German trained service dogs for men blinded during battle
P.L. 66-24 provided additional funds to APH.
Dorothy Harrison Eustis established, the Seeing Eye
The 1st U.S. dog guide school
The Pratt-Smoot Act, P.L. 71-787
Provide funding for literature for adults who are blind.
Talking Books developed by The American Foundation for the Blind
Social Security Act passed
Aid to the Blind rehabilitation program
National Federation of the Blind formed
P.L. 77-270 amended P.L. 45-186, Allows Franking Privileges for the blind
Franking Privileges allows letters or parcels to be sent without the application of a postage stamp.
provided for the sending of braille writers to or from persons who are blind at the same rates as provided, regardless of the purpose for which they were mailed.
P.L. 88-164 extended funding for personnel preparation for all categories of children with disabilities.
Title II, P.L. 88-164,
supported universities in creating departments for teachers of exceptional children.
Title I, P.L. 89-313
Amended the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to provide support for the education of children with disabilities in state-operated and state-supported schools and hospitals.
Handicapped Children's Early Education Assistance Act, P.L. 90-538
Authorized preschool and early education programs for children with disabilities.
Provided for a National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped
Wagner Oday Act
The Wagner Oday Act is a U.S. federal law requiring that all federal agencies purchase specified supplies and services from nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other significant disabilities. It expanded the Wagner O'Day Act of 1938. The older law applied only to people who were blind and covered supplies but not services.
The Education Amendments of 1972, P.L. 92-318
Prohibited discrimination against people who are blind.
Section 504. Can not discriminate on hiring based on handicap. Education is mandated.
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
A federal law that protects the privacy of student education records.
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act, P.L. 94-142
Kurzweil Reader invented
A prototype translator of printed material into synthesized speech.
TEFRA, P.L. 97-248
This act provided medical assistance eligibility to some children with disabilities who live with at least one biological or adoptive parent.
94-457 Amendment to Education for all Handicapped Children Act
Mandated that states provide programs and services from birth
Americans with Disabilities Act, P.L. 101-336
Prohibits discrimination based on a person disability. It prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in areas of employment, public services, and public accommodations
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), P.L. 101-476
Section 255 Telecommunications Amendment
Congress amended the telecommunications law to require telephones and telephone services to be more accessible. Section 255 ensures that new telephones would be designed for use by people with disabilities including those who are blind or visually impaired. The internet and electronic mail are not currently covered under Section 255.
P.L. 105-17 Children with visually impairment would receive instruction in Braille
Affirming that children with visual impairments would receive instruction in Braille unless the IEP team decides otherwise, and added orientation and mobility instruction as a related service under the act. It established high expectations for students with disabilities to achieve real educational results.
Section 508. Amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Addressing access to electronic information technology. It was enacted to eliminate barriers in information technology, to make available new opportunities for people with disabilities and to encourage the development of technologies that will achieve these goals