The Western Roman Empire falls and places European civilization in disarray.
The Franks win the Battle of Tours under Charles Martel.
Charlemagne rules over a large part of Europe, establishing an empire under Christianity.
Scandinavians settle and expand throughout Europe until the Norman conquest of England.
The Catholic Church attempts to reclaim the holy land.
The first Crusades called on by Pope Urban II.
The third Crusade after Jerusalem is captured by Saladin.
The Magna Carta, a charter of rights, is signed by King John of England.
England and France fight over the right to rule France.