Animal psychology also developed during this same time, which concerned itself with the prediction and control of animal behavior. G.J. Romanes (1848-1894) was a notable figure in early animal research.
First psychological Laboratory
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), the founder of experimental psychology established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany. He was concerned with the empirical study of introspection. This movement initiated the founding of psychology labs across the united States at various Universities, the foundation to an experimental study of psychology.
Following Charles Darwin theory of evolution, William James, (1842-1910) anticipating functionalism, which was characterized by a focus on how consciousness functioned in everyday life. In contrast to structuralism, functionalism focused on "why" and "how" instead of "what".
E.B. Titchener (1867-1927) established structuralism which introduced the concept that introspection can be observable by studying the process at work while an individual was engaged in perception, cognition or discrimination.
Pavlov and colleagues began to experimentally condition animals to elicit reflex behaviors in the presence of previously neutral stimuli. This prompted the ability to reliably predict and control animal behavior.
S-R model of classical behaviorism
John B Watson coined the term "behaviorism" and "behaviorist" and subsequently established the field as concerning itself with publicly observable behavior that reliably occurs following the presentation of a given stimulus.
Emergence of the S-O-R contingency, which includes an organic mediator that may or may not occur and have an influence on the following response. This presented as an issue that prompts a more pragmatic and accurate approach to behaviorism. The existence of an organic mediator does not provide any additional information regarding the functional relationship between the stimulus and the response. Given the question of it's occurrence or not, the organic mediator is also difficult to accurately measure, predict or control.
B. F Skinner and Behavior Analysis
B. F Skinner adopted Darwin's natural selectionism and applied it to learned behavior, extending the work of Watson and Pavlov and prominent thinkers of that time. Skinner eliminated the need for an organic mediator and added a consequent stimuli that either increases or decreases the future occurrence of a behavior, coining the phrase A-B-C contingency.
Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior was first published.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis was first published.