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European History

Power in Florence was held by Medici banking family

1434 - 1494

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

1438

"On the False Donation of Constantine"

1444

Written by Lorenzo Valla.

Movable Type

1454

Printing press made by Johann Gutenberg, Johann Fust, and Peter Schoffer. Made texts more accessible.

Gutenberg Bible

1456

Bible in a vernacular. Gutenberg's german is how german is currently.

Pope Sixtus IV authorized Inquisition

11/1478

Treaty of Arras

1482

France got control of French Burgundy.

Pope Alexander VI was aided militarily and politically by his son, Cesare Borgia

1492 - 1503

This led to the papal state gaining power.

French King Charles VIII invaded Italy

1494

Italy became focus of international ambitions and battleground of foreign armies. Also, Medici exiled from Florentine and was restored to a republic.

"The Education of a Christian Prince"

1504

Written by Desiderius Eramus.

"The Praise of Folly"

1509

Written by Desiderius Eramus.

"The Prince"

1513

Written by Niccolo Machiavelli. "The Prince" was inspired by Cesare Borgia. Gave instructions on how to be a powerful leader.

John Calvin worked on creating a Christian society

1514

This place would be Geneva.

Concordat of Bologna

1516

Martin Luther posted his "Ninety-five Theses"

10/31/1517

"Ninety-five Theses on the Power of Indulgences"

Charles V became Holy Roman Emperor

1519

German Peasants' Revolt

1525

Lay rulers' authority greatly strengthened.

King Henry VIII wanted marriage annulled

1527

He was married to Catherine of Aragon, but fell for Anne Boleyn.

"The Courtier"

1528

Written by Baldassare Castiglione. Basically a how-to on being a Renaissance man.

The Act in Restraint of Appeals

1533

Gave Henry VIII supreme sovereignty in Enland, so his word was higher than the pope's.

The Supremacy Act

1534

Made the king the supreme head of the Church of England.

Anne Boleyn beheaded

1536

This made Elizabeth illegitimate.

Parliament relegitimated Mary and Elizabeth

1547

This makes them eligible to be rulers later on.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Charles V agreed to in 1555. It officially recognized Lutheranism. Also, each German prince was permitted to choose their territory's religion.