A Study of the Increasing Role of the Government in the United States(political)

(1870-1890)

The Gilded Age-Chapter 7

Roscoe Conkling

1865

Political boss in New York that used his power to build parks,sewer systems, and waterworks,and gave money to schools,hospitals,and orphanage.Also,provided government support for new businesses.

Tweed Ring Scandal

1869 - 1871

A group of corrupt politicians in New York City,involved in New York County County Courthouse construction scheme

Politcal Machine

1870

An organized group that controlled the activities of an political party in a city,also offered services to voters ans business in exchange for political or financial support.

Civil Service Reform

1883

Government administration job

The Origins of Progressivism-Chapter 9

Wome's Suffrage

1718

The womens suffrage is the right of the women to vote and run office.The women were able to vote and do what they wished to do in the years 1718 through 1771,when taxpaying women listed in their guilds as proffesionals and were allowed to vote.

WCTU

1873

WCTU stands for" Woman's Christian Temperance Union",it was the first mass organization among women devoted to social reform wit a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied christianity.

Eugene Victor."Gene" Debs

1875 - 1926

Gene was born in november 5, 1855.He died in october 20, 1926 .He was an American union leader, he was one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World.Debs had joined the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen (BLF) in February 1875 and became active in this fraternal benefit organization;

Scientific Management

1880

scientific management was also called taylorism.It was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized work-flows.The main objective was getting better economic efficience including labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management.

Hazen Stuart Pingree

1889 - 1901

Hazen was born in august 30, 1840 and he died in june 18, 1901 was a four term republican mayor of detroit during the years 1889–1897 and he was the 24th Governor of the US state of Michigan for 1897-1901.

Rise of the Progressive Movement

1890 - 1920

purification of government, as progressives tried to eliminate corruption by exposing and undercutting political machines and bosses.

John Muir

1890 - 1914

John Muir was born in April 21,1838 and died i December 24,1914. He was a Scottish born american.He was an author and an early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the uinited states.

Sherman Antitrust Act of 1902

1890

The Sherman Antitrust Act is a landmark federal statue on the united states competition law passed by congress in 1890.It prohibits certain business activities that federal government regulators deem to be anticompetitive,and requires the federal government to investigate and pursue trusts,companies,and organizations suspected of being in violation.

Florence Kelly

1899 - 1932

florence kelley was born in september 12, 1859.And died in feburuary 17, 1932.She was an American social and political reformer,she was a worker against sweatshops and for the minimum wage, eight-hour work days and children's rights is widely regarded today. Its founding in 1899, kelley served as the first general secretary of the National Consumers League. In 1909 Kelley helped create the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

Northern Securities Company

1901

the northern securities company was an important united states railroad trust formed in 1901 by E. H. Harriman, James J. Hill, J.P. Morgan, J.D. Rockefeller, and their associates.They also controlled many more companies.

Coal Strike of 1902

1902

The coal strike of the 1902 was a strike by the united mine workers of america in the anthracite coal fields of eastern pennsylvania.Miners were o strike asking for higher wages,shorter workdays and recognition of their union.

Elkins Act

1903

The Elkins Act is at 1903 united states federal law that amended the interstate commerce act of 1887.

Square Deal

1904

The Square Deal was President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection.These three demands are often referred to as the "three C's" of Roosevelt's Square Deal. Though, it aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the most extreme demands of organized labor. In contrast to his predecessor William McKinley, Roosevelt was a Republican who believed in government action to mitigate social evils, and as president denounced “the representatives of predatory wealth” as guilty of “all forms of iniquity from the oppression of wage workers to defrauding the public.

The Jungle

1906

the jungle was influential and persuaded america about the supposed horror of the chicago union stock yards, a giant complex of meat processing that developed in the 1870's.

Pure Food and Drug Act

1906

The pure food and drug act was in 1906 and it was a piece of progressive era legislation,signed by president Theodore Roosevelt on the same day as the Federal Meat Inspection Act was signed

Federal Meat Inspection Act

1906

The Federal Inspection Act(FMIA) started in 1906.Its a united states congress act that works to prevent adulterated or misbranched meat and meat products from being sold as food and ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions.

Upton Beall Sinclair

1906 - 1968

Sinclair was born in September 20,1878 and he died in November 25,1968.He was an american author and only one time candidate for governer of california who wrote close to one hundred books in many genres.

History of the Standard Oil Company

1911

The History of the Standard Oil Company was credited with hastening the breakup of Standard Oil, which started like about in 1911

The New Freedom

1912

The New Freedom comprises the campaign speeches and promises of Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential campaign.They constituted the reforms promoted by Wilson,he added new controls such as the Federal Reserve System and the Clayton Antitrust Act.
Wilson focusced on three types of reforms: the first one was the Tariff Reform. The second one was Business Reform.And the third one was the Banking Reform.

16 Amendment

1913

The 16 amendment is part of the United States Constitution allows the congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on Census results.

Federal Reserve Act of 1903

1913

The Federal Reserve Act started in December 23,1913.The reserve act is an act of congress that created and set up the federal resereve system,the central banking system of the United States of America.

President Woodrow Wilson

1913 - 1924

Thomas Woodrow Wilson was his full name.He was born in December 28,1856 and died in February 3,1924.He was the 28th president of the United States of America and he was in the office from 1913 to 1921.He also was a leader of the Progressive Movement.
In his first year of bieng president he persuaded a Democratic Congress to pass major progressive reforms.Wilson successfully pushed na legislative agenda that few presidents have equaled.This included the Trade Comminism Act,the Clayton Antitrust Act,the Federal Farm Loan Act and an income tax.

Federal Trade Communism Act

1914

The federal trade communism (FTC) started in september 25,1914.It is an independent agency of the United States Governenment and established in 1914 by the (FTC act) its principal mission is the promotion of the consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of anti-competive business practices such as coercive monopoly.

the federal tradeee communism act was one of the president woodrow wilson's major acts against trusts.Trustsand trust-busting were significant political corners durng the progressive era

Carrie Chapman Catt

1920

Catt was born in January 9,1859,and she was a women's suffrage leader who campainged for the 19th amendment to the US Constitution which gave the US women the right to vote 1920.Catt served as President of theNational American Women Suffrage Association and was thre founder of the league of Women Voters and the International Allisance of women.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt

1932 - 1945

President Roosevelt was born in January 30,1882 and died April 12,1945.He was the 32nd president of the united states through 1933 and 1945.And a central figure in world events during the mid-20 century

America's Struggles with Postwar Issues-Chapter 12

Henry Ford

1903

Henry Ford was born in july 30,1863 and died in april 7,1947.He was an american industrialist,the founder of the Ford Company,and sponser of the developedment of the assembly line technique of mass production.Although ford didn't invent the automobile,he developed and manufractured the firstautomobile that middle class americans coud affort to buy.He became the richest man in the fordism:mass prodeuction of inexspensive goods coupled with high wagesz for workers.

Palmer Raids

1918

The leader of this event was general Attorney Mitchell Palmer,under woodrow wilson.The Palmer Raids were a number of attacks on socialists and comminists in the united states from 1918 to 1921.Palmer started his belief that communism was "eating its way into the homes of the american workman and that american communists were responsible for most of the country's social problems.

Communism of "The Red Scare"

1919

The proportion of fear of a potential rise of communism o radical leftism,used by anti-leftist proponents.
The first Red Scare was about workers(socialist)revolution and political radicalism.The second Red Scare was focused on national and foreign communists influencing society.

Coal Miner's Strike

1919

Unionism was more sucessful in america's coalfields.In 1919,the united mine workers of america, organized sincwe 1890,they got a new leader and it was John L.Lewis. In protest of low wages and long workdays,Lewis called his union's members out on strike on November 1, 1919.

"Return to Normalcy"

1920

Return to normalcy means the return to the way of life before the world war 1, it was united states presidential candidate warren g. harding's campaign promise in the election of 1920

President Warren Harding

1921

Harding was born in November 2,1865, and he died in August 2,1923.He was the 29th president of the United States through 1921-1923.
He was a republican from Ohio.Harding was self-made newspaper publisher who served as a member of the ohio senate.

Andrew Mellon

1921

Andrew William Mellon was born in March 24,1855 and died in August 26,1937. He was an american banker,individualist,philanthropist ,art collecter,and Secretary of the Treasury from March 12,1932

Dawes Plan

1924

The Dawes Plan was organized by Charles G. Dawes,it was an attempt in 1924 to solve the reparations problem,which had bedeviled international politics following World War 1.