In 1932 during the presidential election the republicans nominated president Hoover again but most American disliked Hoover for not fixing the depression and for also gassing and attacking the bonus army. The one running against him on the Democrat side was Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who at the time already served two terms as a governor of New York. Roosevelt won the election.
Because the 20th amendment wasn't ratified until February 1933, Roosevelt had to wait four months before becoming the president. While he was waiting he got a group of advisers which included professors, lawyers, journalists, etc called the brain trust. He also created an administration which would get rid of Great Depression problems, called the New Deal.
From March 9th to June 16th in 1933 the hundred days occurred. This is an event where congress passed over 15 new Deal Legislation pieces. These supposedly increased the involvement between government and the economy. The hundred days happened on the first hundred days of presidency. On March 5th in the hundred days he declared a banking holiday to close all banks. Then he allowed the treasury department to inspect banks, with only the safe ones being open. This led people to bring their money back into banks that they thought were safe.
There were also Fireside chats which were frequently held over the radio to give people the impression that the president was talking to them. The first fireside chat was on March 12th which was the day before the first series of banks would reopen. Roosevelt told the citizens that if too many people asked for their savings money, the bank would collapse. This prompted most US citizens to bring their money back to the banks. HE also told the citizens that they have to support their banks so they do not collapse.
In 1933 the glass-Steagall act was created and created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation which gave federal insurance to individual bank accounts of $5,000 or less.
The Federal Securities Act was created in May 1933 and made it necessary for corporations to give complete information on all stock offerings and they would be liable if there were misrepresentations.
Also the 21st amendment was created at the end of 1933, getting rid of prohibition of alcohol so tax on the alcohol could be used for revenue.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act was created to increase the prices of crops by using government money to pay farmers to leave certain parts of their field unplanted of unharvested.
Roosevelt created the Civilian Conservation Corporation which allowed people between the age of 18 and 25 to work and get paid for it with a salary of $30 a month. They would plant trees, pave roads, build parks, help in flood control and soil erosion projects, etc. They also planted over 200 million trees to prevent another dust bowl.
President Hoover aggreed to deficit spending which was a policy involving the government using more money than it earned in revenue. Roosevelt did not see this as a good thing though, but a neccesity demanded by the bad economic situation. Liberals used the argument that the New Deal didn't help the poor and reform the nation's economic system enough. Conservatives thought the New Deal policies were used by Roosevelt to socialize the economy and controll business. Most people thought that the New Deal blocked the flow of a free-market economy. The conservatives didn't like the Agricultural Adjustment Act and National Industrial act because they thought it gave too much controll over industry and the farm business.
The National Industial Recovery Act was considered unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1935. It was considered that the law gave legislative powers to the executive branch (The branch of the government that excecutes the laws. The legislative branch creates the laws.). It also used government power that was not granted to the government to have so much controll over the interstate commerce. They then said that the AAA was unconstitutional as agriculture was a state matter and not a government one.
Roosevelt proposed a "Court-packing Bill" in response on February 1937 with reorganization of the federal judiciary banch allowing him to appoint six new supreme Court justices. In 1937 a member of the court justice retired, allowing Roosevelt to appoint a new member that was in favor of the new deal. Late he was able to appoint 7 new justices because of people retiring.
The American Liberty League was created in 1934 and were agaisnt the New Deal as conservatives. They thought the NEw Deal went against property rights. Three of them were Charles, Coughline, D. Francis Townsend, and Huey Long. Dr. Francis thought that Roosevelt wasn't doing enough to help the poor and old people, so created a pension plan to give monthly benefits to old people.This took some supporters of Roosevelt. Charles Coughlin was a Catholic priest who originally supported the New Deal but then went against it, broadcasting opinions on his radio sermon show. HE lost his support though because he had anti-semitic ideas. Huey Long used to be for the New Deal but he turned agaisnt it later. He supposedly wanted to be the president. HE proposed a US. social program called Share-Our-Wealth. He got millions of members, but was kille dby a gunman at the hight of his popularity.
The Tennessee valley authority was created in May 1933. It repaird five dams and created 20 dams creating, flood controll, jobs, electricity, etc.
In 1937 There was a court calse of NLRB vs JOnes and Laughlin Seel Corporation. NLRB was the National Labor Relations Board. NLRB said the company used unfair labor practices and wanted it to rehire the workers with pay. Congress allowed this since the Steel Corporation is part of the interstate commerce flow.