British History

1680-1830

Main

The Commercial/Consumer Revolution

1600 - 1700

-Consult notes

The Restoration

1660 - 1685

-Charles II becomes King
-Church serves as midway for King and Parliament
-Religious repression for dissentors (not solved during previous civil war)
-Court = source of political instability (does not approve of Charles II)

The Popish Plot

1667

-Titus Oates publishes false accusation of Catholic plot to murder Charles II
-Massive persecution of Catholics by the Anglican Church

The Exclusion Crisis

1678

-Some people wanted to exclude Charles's brother, James, from the throne due to his Catholicism and ties to the French Court
-Divided the nation politically: Whigs supported the bill and Tories opposed it

Monmouth Rebellion

1685

-Duke of Monmouth (illegitimate son of Charles) wanted to claim the throne
-James puts down the rebellion (marks secure position in early years)

Declaration of Indulgence

1687

-Allows any religion to be practiced

Financial Revolution

1688 - 1720

-Bank of England established (1694)
-The Great Recoinage (1696)
-Land and excise taxes created
-Monied interest versus Landed interest; stockjabbing

Warming-Pan Scandal

1688

-Queen gives birth, but the princess refuses to recognize the child since Parliament does not want another heir like James

Toleration Act

1689

-Nonconformists are allowed to worship, but not Catholics

Expiration of the Licensing Act

1695

-No more censorship

Slave Trade Monopoly Abolished

1698

Coffeehouses

1700 - 1720

-Coffee house surge in England
-2-3 thousand in London by 1700
-Charles II was against them
-Rise of Commercial Culture

Union of England and Scotland

1707

Emergence of the Newspaper

1711

-The Spectator; Addison

The Septennial Act

1716

-Elections are held every 7 years
-Causes more money to go into elections

South Sea Bubble

1720

-Over speculation on buying government debt
-Many investors lost money; small economic collapse
-Saved by Walpole

Second Jacobite Rebellion

1745

-Attempt to regain the Scottish throne and establish an absolute monarchy

Bridgewater Canal

1759

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1830

-Agrarian Revolution

James Watt's Condesor

1763

Made steam power more efficient

Speenhamland

1765

-First idea of a minimum wage
-Parish giving poor relief

Middlesex Election Dispute

1768

-John Wilkes denied MP three times before finally getting a seat in 1774

American Revolutionary War

1775 - 1783

-Focus on India
-Domestic Concerns; representation; focused radicalism

Somersett Case

1777

-Slavery unsupported by England and Wales

Gordon Riots

1780

-Campaign against Catholics
-middling sorts thought that this would ruin the social order

First Notice of Parliamentary Reform on Slave Trade

1788

William Wilberforce

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

London Corresponding Society

1791

-Paine-ites distribute his material

Penitentiary Act

1791

-Solitary confinement
-Uniforms
-Inspections

Society of United Irishmen

1791

-Wolfe Tone begins to demand reforms for the Irish political scene

Irish Rebellion

1798

-Brutally crushed by the British

Combination Acts

1799 - 1800

-Did not allow political organizations to exist
-Drove activity underground

Act of Union

1800

-United England and Ireland
-No concessions for Catholics
-Prime Minister (Pitt) wanted to unite the kingdom

Slave Trade Act

1807

-Slave trade is abolished in Great Britain

Corn Laws Enacted

1815

-Trade laws that protected cereal producers in the U.K.
-Made it too expensive to import grain

Peterloo

1819

-Peaceful demonstration is broken by military force

Queen Caroline Affair

1820

Anti-Slavery Society

1823

Catholic Association

1823

-Small cost to join 1 schilling

Catholic Emancipation

1829

-End of confessional state in Britain
-Done by Tories (ironically)

Manchester-Liverpool Railway

1830

-First train completed

The Great Reform Act

1832

-Enfranchised the middle class
-First big reform since the Glorious Revolution

Slavery Abolition Act

1833

New Poor Laws

1834

-Poor relief nationalized
-Workhouses implemented
-Surge of anti-poor sentiments

Class Society Forms

1840 - 1880

Aristocracy, Middle Class, Working Class

Pentonville

1842

-First modern prison

Reign

Timeline of each monarch

Charles II

1660 - 1685

James II

1685 - 1688

-Builds up the British Army
-Reforms the local government (like Louis XIV)
-Increasingly supports Catholicism

William and Mary (William III)

1688 - 1702

-Establishes a constitutional monarchy
-Shifted to pro-dutch instead of pro-french (trading)
-Whig Dominance
-Growth of the military-fiscal state (excise tax enacted)
-Atlantic Slave Trade

Anne

1702 - 1714

-Favored the Tories

George I

1714 - 1727

-Robert Walpole and the Robinocracy (faces oppostion from Tories)
-Whigs become the party of war/foreign trade

George II

1727 - 1760

George III

1760 - 1820

George IV

1820 - 1830

William IV

1830 - 1837

Written Works

Isaac Newton Principia

1687

-Newton's Laws
-Scientific Revolution

Two Treatise John Locke

1689

-attacks patriarchalism in the form of sentence-by-sentence refutation of Robert Filmer's Patriarcha and the Second Treatise outlines his ideas for a more civilised society based on natural rights and contract theory.

John Locke Essay Concerning Education

1693

-Can't rule arbitrarily by obedience
-Education is the path to becoming a free man

The Grumbling Hive Mandeville

1705

-Society is dominated by self-interest
-greed and vice are supported in society
-Wants to live in a society without morals to hold it back

Luxury/Avarice Addison

1711

Lady Credit Addison

1711

Wealth of Nations Adam Smith

1776

-Dealt blow to monopolies
-Wealth is almost infinite, let the market work on its own, self-interests (Mandeville)
-Very uneasy about humanity in a capitalist society; civilizes man (forces them to be frugal)

On Civil Liberty Price

1776

-Government should protect civil liberties

Common Sense Paine

1776

-Ruling tyrannically over the colonies makes no sense
-Blueprint for the American revolution

Celebration of the revolution of 1688 Richard price

1789

Discourse on the Love of our Country Price

1790

-Revolution is an upheaval; overthrow of the social order

Reflections on the Glorious Revolution Edmund Burke

1790

-Nothing revolutionary about Glorious Revolution (restoration)
-Revolution is wrong
-Revolution = irrationality = women

Rights of Man Paine

1791

-Burke is right
-England needs its revolution

Reflection on the Revolution in France

1791

Vindication of the Rights of Women Wollstonecraft

1792

-Women needs universal rights
-Education reform
-Gender roles are incorrect

T.B. Macaulay's Reform Bill

1832

Manufacturing Populations of England Gaskell

1833

Self Help Samuel Smiles

1882