Desegregation: Something all students should know
Massachusetts Supreme Court rules that segregated schools are permissible under the state's constitution.
Black Codes was a name given to laws passed by southern governments established during the presidency of Andrew Johnson.
Segregation Begins - Public schools were segregated, and Blacks were barred from serving on juries, and testifying against Whites.
The Supreme Court upheld a local school board's decision to close a free public Black school due to fiscal constraints, despite the fact that the district continued to operate two free public white schools.
The Court applied the "separate but equal" formulation of Plessy v. Ferguson to the public schools.
The Supreme Court denied citizenship to Black people, setting the stage for their treatment as second class citizens.
Southern states secede from the Union. The Civil War begins.
Louisiana passes the first Jim Crow law requiring separate accommodations for Whites and Blacks.
"Separate but Equal"
The Court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, and declared that racial segregation in public schools violated the Equal Protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
Lincoln successfully led the United States through one of its greatest constitutional, military, and moral crises—the American Civil War—preserving the Union
Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice. Marshall was a lawyer who was best known for his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education.
King was an American clergyman, activist, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience.
President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves in Southern states. Because the Civil War is ongoing, the Proclamation has little practical effect.
The Civil War ends; the Thirteenth Amendment is enacted to abolish slavery.
The Fourteenth Amendment is ratified, guaranteeing "equal protection under the law"; citizenship is extended to African Americans.
Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which bans racial discrimination in public accommodations.
The Supreme Court strikes down the Civil Rights Act of 1875 finding that discrimination by individuals or private businesses is constitutional.