Moses had led the people to the land of Canaan and there, they were divided into 12 tribes. After a while there was only one tribe left, the tribe of Judah. They called themselves Jews and they had 3 different kings, Saul, David, and Solomon.
Solomon built a temple to glorify God and did many other things to help Israel.
Because of Solomon's buildings, taxes were raised. The nothern part revolted after Solomon's death and the Kingdom was divided in two. Israel in the north, Judah in the south.