The Dutch in Brazil
1624 - 1654
The English in Jamaica
1655 - 1660
The Scots at Darien
1698 - 1699
The French at Kourou
1763 - 1764
Piet Heyn took Spanish treasure fleet
Dutch returned to Brazil
Dutch controlled most of NE Brazil
union of Portuguese and Spanish crowns ended
- Dutch remained at war with Spain but made peace, followed by an alliance with Portugal. Still, the Dutch refused to leave Brazil, owing to investments in sugar production.
- Luso-Brazilians revolted against the Dutch. The locals were better acclimated to local diseases than were Dutch forces.
yellow fever in Jamaica
1647 - 1652
- Venable's solders might have had yellow fever. But in 1655, Jamaica, with no real cities or sugar plantations, made falciparum malaria a more likely suspect despite the unusually high mortality.
Dutch lost Recife, Brazil and surrendered
- The Dutch lost their capital, Recife, Brazil. A garrison of 7,000 shrank to 1,300. The Dutch surrendered.
Cromwell attacked Santo Domingo
- Unpromising army. 1,000 Englishmen and only 40 defenders died.
Cromwell attacked Jamaica
- Jamaica: minor outpost of the Spanish Empire, strategically important because it lay upwind of treasure fleet routes. Invading English outnumbered the entire Jamaican population 3 to 1.
5,000 / 9,000 Englishmen died
2,200 / 10,000 troops remained
- By 1660, when English hold was secure and army's health sound, only 2,200 troops remained of the roughly 10,000 committed to the Jamaica campaign.
Mexico, U.S., Cuba
1830 - 1898