By: Saranki Sivan
A ceremony shared by all Pacific Coast Peoples, in which the chief of one lineage if nation invited outside dignitaries ti a celebration which combined feasting, dancing, singing, and finished with the chief giving his guests gifts according to rank.
The Thule (Inuit) were the last of the Aboriginal Peoples to migrate to Canada. They migrated from Siberia and Alaska, replaced the Dorset, and occupied the Canadian Arctic.
Membertou was the Chief of the Mi’kmaq peoples at the time of Samuel de Champlain’s arrival and was respected by the French. The Mi’kmaq placed great emphasis on hospitality. They welcomed the French and offered their assistance in finding food, learning survival techniques, and in Champlain’s explorations down the coast of the Atlantic seaboard. When Port Royal was abandoned in 1607, it was left under the care of Membertou.
John Cabot was the first European to discover Canada in 1497. He discovered Newfoundland on his first voyage and when returning from his second voyage, he disappeared and was never found.
Pierre du Gua de Monts left France for Acadia to establish a French colony and permanent trading post. He brought Samuel de Champlain with him. They were unprepared for the harsh Canadian winter and almost half of the settlers died.
De Monts and Champlain moved their settlement to Port Royal. Having learned from their previous experiences, they built a settlement more suitable for sustaining them over the long, cold winter.
Champlain established a settlement in New France which he called the Habitation of Quebec. Quebec would be the major centre for French colonial power until it was lost to the English in 1760.
Very little is known about the Beothuk. Contact between Europeans and the Beiothuk led to conflict and the Beothuk became extinct. Shawnadithit, a young woman who was discovered by the Europeans in 1823 and who died in 1829, is thought to be the last Beothuk.