Unit 9 and 10

Lindsay Zadunayski

Main

Knights of Labor Formed

1869

This is important because the group became a huge union with lots of power and impact

Susan B. Anthony Casts a Ballot

1872

This is important because she was jailed; women were not ever allowed to vote

Woman's Christian Temperance Union Formed

1874

This is important because they were a big group in pushing for prohibition, but were exclusive to Christian women

Munn v Illinois

1877

This is important because the supreme court case increased the size and power of government by allowing them to regulate private companies if it served the public interest, such as with health inspectors

Railroad Strike of 1877

1877

This is important because wages were cut by 10%, so workers campaigned to get them back, but Hayes called in federal troops. It spread to a nationwide strike with 100 dead and immigrant scabs, and the American people supported Hayes' decision

Black Thursday

June 21 1877

This is important because ten men who were found guilty of murder as Molly Maguires by a partial jurt were hanged

Dumbbell Tenement

1879

This is important because it shows just how bad housing was for the immigrants who lived in tenements; they were crowded, didn't have much natural light, and had no bathrooms

Election of 1880

1880

This is important because it decided the new president, and the Republicans campaigned with a stalwart vp, Arthur, and a half-breed president, Garfield, and won.

Garfield's Assassination

1880

This is important because Charles J Guiteau, a stalwart, killed Garfield so that that Arthur would be president and the spoils system would be in place.

New Immigrants

1880

This is important because immigrants from Italy, Slovakia, Greece, Poland, etc, started coming to America instead of just the Western Eruopeans, and they were much more unpopular and didn't assimilate into the communities because of their different cultures and religions

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882

This is important because it showed that racism was not only directed to African Americans, but also to China, and laws were passed to keep them out

Pendleton Act

1883

This is important because although Arthur was a stalwart who believed in the spoils system, he signed an act for civil service reform

First Australian Ballot Used

1884

This is important because the parties were on the same ballot for the first time, so many Republicans secretly voted for the Democrat candidate

Mugwumps

1884

This is important because Mugwumps were Republicans who voted Democraticaly because of Blaine's shady "Burn This Letter" deals.

Election of 1884

1884

This is important because Cleveland beat Blaine for President, making him the first elected democrat since the Civil War

Belva Lockwood Runs For President

1884

This is important because the candidate f the Equal Rights Party was the first woman to run a full campaign for the presidency of the United States

First Skyscraper

1885

This is important because the building in Chicago by Architect Louis Sullican meant that with cities attracting more and more people, they could now grow vertically instead of just horizantally

Haymarket Strike

1886

This is important because the group The Knights of Labor were very popular and succesful, but after they threw a bomb that killed seven soldiers, they were labeled as anarchists, lost all their credibility, and made it so that there were only several small unions for laborers

Statue of Liberty

1886

This is important because the massive present from France for America's 100th birthday took a long time to take apart, ship across the ocean, and put together at Ellis Island

American Federation of Labor Formed

1886

This is important because it was formed by Samuel Gompers, but had now governemtn support, was very exclusive, and had no unity, making it not very effective

American Protective Association Formed

1887

This is important because the members of the Nativist and Know-Nothing parties extremely disliked the new immigrants from Eastern Europe, and bonded against them

Election of 1888

1888

This is important because Benjamin Harrison beat Cleveland as Cleveland lost the states of Indiana and New York from the last election, and there was very clear sectionalism

Studies of Factory Life: Among the Women Published

1888

This is important because the article by Lillie B. Chase Wyman on factory workers in Rhode Island gave poor women and children a voice, too

The Gospel of Wealth

1889

This is important because Andrew Carnegie's book argued that the wealthy had a duty to prperly administer their money to produce the most beneficial results for the community

Hull House Formed

1889

This is important because the establishment formed by Jane Addams immensely helped immigrants and other poor people

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

1890

This is important because it the act brought down many unions, but did succeed in bringing down the Standard Oil Trust

How The Other Half Lives Published

1890

This im important because the book by Jacob Riis, and its pictures, raised much sympathy for the struggles of immigrants, and led to reforms

United Mine Workers of America Union formed

1890

This is important because they weren't willing to accept people from a variety of backgroungs, and it limited their effectiveness.

General Federation of Women's Clubs Formed

1890

This is important because by 1920 it had over a million member, and became a vehicle for moderate white women's political activism

Election of 1892

1892

This is important because Cleveland beat Harrison and Wealer, making him the first person to be president in two unconsecutive terms.

The Solitude of Self writted

1892

This is important because the speech, written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, was too strong of an approach and didn't gain the women any rights

Panic of 1893

1893

This is important because Cleveland repealed the Sherman Silver Purchasing Act, which was bad for farmers because they had no silver standard and went into debt

Anti Saloon League Formed

1893

This is important because they had many important characters, such as Carrie Nation, and had the slogan "the lips that touch liquor must never touch mine," making them the first group of women to think of using their sex to their advantage. However, many of them were married or old, so it wasn't super effective

National Council of Jewish Women Formed

1893

This is important because it shows that women from all different backgrounds looked for reform in similar manners

Wilson Gorman Tariff

1894

This is important because it was the first time the idea of an income tax, even if only 2% was applicated, and it greatly pleased the populists

Pullman Strike

1894

This is important because the railway strike was done by the American Railway Union, a group exclusive to white males, so it was not effective at all

Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Company

1895

This is important because the supreme court case ruled that the income tax was a direct tax and unconstitutional, rendering the Income Tax Act of 1894 powerless

Atlanta Exposition Address

1895

This is important because Booker T. Washington was an influential leader for African Americans, and this speech helped gain him supporters who agreed that it was important for former slaves to be economically independent

J.P. Morgan Bails Out The Government

1895

This is important because J.P. Morgan lent $65 million in gold to the government, which fixed the deflation problem and supported the gold standard

Cross Of Gold Speech

1896

This is important because William Jenning Bryan's speech won him the Democratic Nomination for the election, and made him very popular with farmers and populists who supported the silver standard

National Association of Colored Women Formed

1896

This is important because by 1914 the group claimed 50,000 members in one thousad local clubs.

Election of 1896

1896

This is important because Mckinley, Republican, beat the Democrat candidate William Jennings Bryan, as even though Bryan got more states, they were the small ones and didn't have enough electoral votes

National Mother's Congress Formed

1897

This is important because it became a vehicle for moderate white women's political activism

US v Wong Kim Ark

1898

This supreme court case is important because it was the first time the 14th amendment applied to people other than former slaves; he was born here, so considered a citizen and not forced to leave

Election of 1900

1900

This is important because Mckinley beat William Jennings Bryan again, and by a lot as Brayn was preaching antiimperialism, and Mckinley was actually really popular

Woman's Convention of tthe National Baptist Convention Founded

1900

This is important because the organization of black Baptist women embraced over one million members

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Published

1900

This is important because Frank L. Baum's book, though easily mistaken for a simple story, was an analogy for the Progressive Era and featured many notable characters, such as Mckinley and William Jennings Bryan

Anthracite Coal Strike

1902

This is important because it was the first time a president used troops to help the workers instead of force them back into labor

The Battle with the Slum Published

1902

This sequel to how the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis was important because it further illuminated the struggles that the immigrants had to go through in the slums

Prejudice Against Women Speech Delivered

February 1902

This is important because Carrie Chapman Catt's speech because it helped to unionize females around one common ideal

The Souls of Black Folk Published

1903

This is important because the book features W. E. B. Du Bois' Of Mr Booker T. Washington and Others, which expressed his distaste for Washington and his yearn for social equality

Departement of Commerce and Labor Established

1903

This is important because this departemtn would use the Sherman Anti-Trust Act how it was intended

Elkins Act

1903

This is important because it was legislation to end the practice of rebates on the railroads, decreasing monopoly

The History of the Standard Oil CompanyPublished

1903

By Ida Tarbell, this was important because it showed the corruption of Standard Oil, and was one of the most important exposes of the twentieth century

The Shame of the Cities Published

1904

This is important because the book by Lincoln Steffens exposed the shame of St Luois, which he likened to that of New York City

Lochner vs. New York

1905

This is important because the supreme court case ruled that states could interfere in the freedom of contract only if long hours constituted a clear health risk either to the workers themselves of to the general public

The Lion and The Mouse Broadway Debut

November 25, 1905

This is important because it was analogous to Ida Tarbell and her dismanteling of Standard Oil

Hepburn Act

1906

This is important because it gave the interstate Commerce Commission the power to set maximum rates

Pure Food and Drug Act

1906

This is important because it changed the meat packing, and many other food, industries, making them more healthy for Americans by making health and sanitary regulations.

Neighborhood Union in Atlanta Founded

1908

By Lugenia Burns Hope, this was important because it provided many needed services to the people of the area

Muller vs. Oregon

1908

This is important because the supreme court case, where Florence Kelley hired Louis Brandeis to argue against Muller, had the ruling that woman's physical structure and the performance of materbal functions place her at a disadvantage in the struggle for subsistence

Gifford Rinchot Fired

1910

This is important because it fueled the feud between William Taft and Theodore Roosevelt since Roosevelt and him were friends and strong conservationalists

Twenty Years at Hull House Published

1910

This is important it let the rest of the country know how her settlement house gave meaning to the live of those who served in them, leading to the establishment of many more around the world

Suffragists and Prohibitionists

1910

This is important because once the women from these two different points of view joined forces, they were able to get a lot of reform and progress made

Standard Oil Dismantled

1911

This is important because J.P. Morgan and Standard Oil were a huge monopoly, and Ida Tarbell the muckraker dismantled them in the magazine McClure's

Principles of Scientific Management

1911

This is important because the book, written by Frederick Winslow Taylor, decreed that every act of a workingman can be reduced to a science, and it also created the idea of an assembly line.

Triangle Fire

March 25 1911

THis is important because 146 women died in this horendous fire at the shirt factory

Election of 1912

1912

This is important because Taft, runnign under the Republican nomination, and Roosevelt, under the Bull-Moose Party nomination, split the Republican vote and let Wilson get elected

US Children's Bureau Formed

1912

This is important because it was the first time people organized to fight for the rights of children, and be anti-child labor

16th Amendment

1913

This is important because it made the income tax legal, and was the end of tariffs

Federal Reserve Act

1913

This is important because the Act created the central baking system of America

Seventeenth Amendment

1913

This is important because it made it so that senators were elected, not appointed

Federal Trade Commission Established

1914

This is important because they 'regulated monopolies', and were the effect of the Clayton Anti-Trust Act

Case for Birth Control writted

1917

This is important because Margaret Sanger argued sexual education for lower class women so that they wouldn't have to get pregnant so much, but Roosevelt thought that was race suicide and pamphlet sending to be obscene

The Polish Peasant in Europe and America Published

1918

This is important because the research project by Thomas and Znaniecki demonstrated how city life overwhelmed rural immigrants and to their social disorganization

Eighteenth Amendment

1919

This is important because it was the amendment for prohibition

Women's Bureau Formed

1920

This is important because the Bureau was a large force in pusing for women's rights, and had a ton of members

Nineteenth Amendment

1920

This is important because it gave women the right to vote

Buck v Bell

1927

This is important because the supreme court case ruled Virginia's laws of sterilization to be constitutionial, making criminals, idiots, rapists, and imbeciles everywhere get sterilized

Social Security Act

1935

This is important because it set the precedent for Aid to Dependent Children