The Wheel is invented.
This allowed the creation of chariots and wheeled carts.
This was a much more effective way to wage war, as soldiers in chariots had a mobility advantage, an awareness advantage and a combat advantage.
The chariot was the first personal transport vehicle and was a fast way to get from point A to point B.
Discovery of Bronze
Bronze is created by mixing copper with arsenic or later tin.
Bronze is easier to work with than copper but harder when cooled
This allowed weapons to be made faster and stronger.
This was the most effective way to wage war for almost 2000 years.
Alexander the Great Conquered Persia
336 bc - 323 bc
This unified the region and allowed for a common language (Greek) to be spoken, which encouraged trade in the region.
Alexander used a professional standing army that took advantage of advanced formations and tactics. This was one of the reasons that he was able to conquer so much territory.
1000 - 1300
It was thought to be developed in China around 500 bc.
This, along with the ballista, were the first siege weapons.
The traction trebuchet was the primary means of artillery in Europe between 1000 and 1300.
It could sling rocks as far as 125 meters, and was relatively simple to build.
1095 ad - 1271 ad
The crusades happened when Pope Urban II attempted to help the Byzantine emperor Alexius I by sending an army to help defend against the Muslims. He got more than he had bargained for though, as the army continued into the middle east and conquered Jerusalem.
The Muslims and the Europeans learned the techniques of heavy cavalry and siege, and fortifications respectively. Trade was also fostered in Venice and Genoa as a result.
The Chinese adapt fireworks to make cannons.
This allows the French to conquer the English city of Bordeaux and the Turks to breach the Defenses of Constantinople.
This drastically changes the effectiveness of castles, no longer allowing lords to stay in them indefinitely.
All information came from the book "Western Civilizations", except for the information on the trebuchet. Page numbers below.
Invention of the wheel: 12-13
Discovery of bronze: 12
Alexander the Great: 92-96
The Crusades: 210-217
Cole, Joshua, and Carol Symes. Western Civilizations: Their History & Their Culture. 4th ed. Vol. 1. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2017.