The military invasion and conquest of England by William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, which began the emergence of a more modern England.
15 June 1215
Charter of rights attributed to King John of England. Considered one of the most important documents of all time, it established the principle that all people are subject to the law, even the king himself.
1300 - 1600
Period of cultural, political, artistic, and economic "rebirth" in Europe, which marked the end of the Later Middle Ages
The Great Famine
1315 - 1317
Series of large scale agricultural crises (i.e. constant months of rain) throughout Europe that lead to millions of deaths and ended the steady increase of population that had been happening until that time. Other serious consequences of the famine include increased crime rates, disease (possibly even a precursor to the plague), and even alleged accounts of cannibalism of both the already dead and even mothers eating their own babies
Hundred Years' War
1337 - 1453
War between France and England regarding the claim to the French throne.
1347 - 1353
A widespread pandemic that killed anywhere from 30% to 60% of Europe's total population
1350 - 1600
An intellectual movement focused on the revival of the study of the ancients, such as Roman and Greek scholars. Helped those born in lower classes get an education and better jobs, such as tutoring the children of the elite.
Life of Joan of Arc
1412 - 30 May 1431
French heroine of the Hundred Years' War who was later canonized as a saint as a "sorry" from the Catholic Church who allowed the English to burn her alive. Received messages from God which lead the French to believe God was on their side in the war, giving them the power to turn the tides on the English.
Burning of Joan of Arc
30 May 1431
But on trial by the English following her capture near Compiégne under charges of heresy and cross-dressing. She was found guilty on the charge of cross-dressing and burned at the stake.
Creation of the Printing Press
The creation of the Printing Press by Johannes Gutenburg began the slow increase of literacy thanks to the wider availability of books and pamphlets. This helped define the Renaissance while also playing a key role in the Protestant Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific revolution. It also allowed for the creation of the now incredibly expensive Gutenberg Bibles.
Life of Leonardo da Vinci
15 April 1451 - 2 May 1519
An amazing man who characterized the Renaissance as he excelled at painting, inventing, engineering, music, science, anatomy, architecture, astronomy, etc.
War of the Roses
22 May 1455 - 22 August 1485
Series of English civil wars between the House of Lancaster and the House of York over the English Throne. House of Lancaster became extinct, House of York was defeated, and House of Tudor (who inherited the Lancaster claim) ascended to the Throne with King Henry VII.
Founding of the New World
The first discovery of the Americas. Except, ya know, all the natives and the Vikings. It was the first exhibition that was funded by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain and lead by Christopher Columbus at least!
Umayyad Conquest of the Iberian Peninsula
711 - 718
Conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by the Umayyad Caliphate which resulted in Muslim rule over the Peninsula and the end of the Visigoth Kingdom.
718 - 2 January 1492
The reconquering of the Iberian Peninsula by the Catholics from the Muslim Caliphate.
Crusade of Barbastro
The true first crusade. Preached by Pope Alexander II thirty years prior to the so-called "first crusade". Catholic victory in retaking the city from the Muslim rulers
Conquest of Toledo
Major victory for the Catholics in the Reconquista
Council of Clermont
18 November 1095 - 28 November 1095
Pope Urban II's speech at Clermont
27 November 1095
Call for the First Crusade by Pope Urban II
1096 - 1099
April 1096 - October 1096
November 1096 - September 1099
First Siege of Antioch
21 October 1097 - 2 June 1098
Second Siege of Antioch
7 June 1098 - 28 June 1098
Siege of Jerusalem
7 June 1099 - 15 July 1099
Capture of Jerusalem by the Christian Crusaders from the Fatimid Caliphate
1145 - 1149
Attempt to recapture a lost crusader state in the Holy Land following fall of the County of Edessa in 1144 to the forces of Zengi
Siege of Jerusalem
Crusader state was lost and the crusading capital in the holy land was moved to Tyre and later Acre. Precursor to the Third Crusade
1189 - 1192
Attempt to recapture the Holy Land following the loss of Jerusalem to the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187
1202 - 1204
Attempt to recapture Jerusalem by first conquering the Egyptian Ayyubid Sultanate
1217 - 1221
Attempt to conquer the Ayyubid state in Egypt
1228 - 1229
Attempt to reconquer Jerusalem, but there really wasn't any fighting. The Crusaders did regain Jerusalem and other lands previously held by crusaders through smart diplomacy
1248 - 1254
Attempt to conquer Egypt and take over Jerusalem, both of which were controlled by the Muslim Ayyubid Dynasty
Fall of Constantinople
6 April 1453 - 29 May 1453
Capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire
Treaty of Granada
25 November 1491 - 1492
Muslim Moors surrender the city, disassembling the Emirate of Granada (the last Muslim kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula), ending the military phase of the Reconquista and leaving Ferdinand and Isabella as the Catholic Monarchs of Spain
The Catholic Church
Life of Pope Gregory VII
1015 - 25 May 1085
A key member of the Investiture Conflict
Life of Henry VI
11 November 1050 - 7 August 1107
A key member of the Investiture Conflict
Break between the Eastern and Western Catholic Churches
Henry IV's reign as Holy Roman Emperor
5 October 1056 - 31 December 1105
Forced to abdicate by his son, Henry V.
Papacy of Gregory VII
22 April 1073 - 25 May 1085
1075 - 1122
Nearly fifty years of civil war within Germany following a conflict between Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV
Concordat of Worms
23 September 1122
An agreement between Pope Callixtus II and Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor (son of Henry IV who had begun the crisis). Ended the Investiture Conflict by officially outlawing lay investiture of Church Offices while giving Secular Leaders a great deal of unofficial influence of appointments
1378 - 1417
Also known as the Western Schism. It was a confusing time in which two, and later three, different men claimed to be the pope
Council of Constance
1414 - 1418
Resolved the Papal Schism, disposed of the three different current popes, and elected Pope Martin V.
Election of Pope Martin V
12 November 1417
His election effectively ended the Papal Schism
31 October 1517
Nailing of the 95 Theses by Martin Luther detailing his grievances with the Catholic Church. Lead to the mass spread of Protestantism