Babur, descended from Genghis Khan and Timur, the Mongol emperor who originally weakened the Delhi Sultanate, defeated the Delhi sultan Ibrahim Shah Lodi in Northern India, and took control of Hindustan. He was generally liked as a leader, because he was Muslim but tolerated other religions.
Babur dies in Agra, leaving his son and heir Humayun in power. Humayun proves to be possibly the weakest leader of the Mughal empire, with no real leadership qualities and an opium addiction. He and his three brothers fought for the throne. Because his father only established the empire 4 years earlier, he was left with no administration system in place. His attempt at administration was divided into four earthly categories- earth, fire, water, and air- so he grouped together sections that wouldn’t have been put together otherwise. This was inefficient, and didn’t last.
Sher Shah, a leader of neighboring Afghans, and Humayun were competing for the rich territory of Bengal, and because Humayun’s troops were held up at the Ganges River, Sher Shah beat them to it, and captured the territory. While Humayun was away, his brothers each took control of different parts of the Mughal territory, declaring themselves as rulers.
Sher Shah defeated the entire Mughal army, chasing Humayun and his brothers out of Delhi and into Lahore, where Humayun had to stay for a little over a year. Sher Shah replaced the Mughal rule in Delhi with the Sur.
Humayun approaches Hussain, the leader of Sindh, for military support, but Hussain doesn’t want to offend Sher Shah so he denies help to Humayun.
Humayun reaches Persia and after signing a paper saying that he would follow the Shi’ite faith, the Persian ruler supports Humayun throughout 1555 in defeating his two corrupt brothers, as well as reclaiming rule in Delhi after the death of Sher Shah.
After Humayun’s sudden death in 1556, his son Akbar took control at the age of 13, and within 2 years defeated all others fighting for the throne and ruled the entire Mughal empire by the time he reached 15.
Akbar met with the ruling army of Rajasthan at the Fort of Chitor, defeating them and gaining the mainly Hindu region for the Mughal empire.
Akbar created his own religion- Din-i-Ilahi, or Religion of God, in which he was a deity. It didn’t ever spread past his court.
Akbar gains the territory of Sindh, so the territory of the Mughal empire now covers the entire northern half of the Indian subcontinent, but the Deccan region prevents him from reaching any further before his death in 1605.
Akbar’s son (disliked by his father) takes control, and within his first year of rule is forced to put down a revolt in Sindh started by his own son, which ends the peaceful ties between the Mughals and Sindh.
Janangir allows the British East India Company to have a warehouse on the western coast of India
Sir Thomas Roe stays with the emperor as the first British Ambassador to India
Jahangir’s son Shah Jahan takes power after his father’s death, and begins what is known as a Golden Age of the Mughals, bringing in cultural movement but ending religious tolerance.
After the death of his beloved wife, Shan Jahan orders the Taj Mahal to be build in her honor.
Shah Jahan orders all recently built Hindu temples to be destroyed, which ends the religious tolerance between the Muslims and the Hindus.
Shah Jahan was taken prisoner by his own son, Auranzgeb, in Agra’s Red Fort, until he dies.
Aurangzeb’s time was known for its elaborate architechture, as displayed in the Grand Mosque at Lahore.
Frustrated with a stalemate at Bijapure, Aurangzeb traveled there himself and ordered the Seige of Bijapure, where the Mughals were victorious.
Bahadur Shah must defeat his rival brothers for power, and is left with revolts from Sindh and Kashmir regions after his father’s death, because of the end of religious tolerance his father created.
With the death of Aurangzeb, the Golden Age was over and the Mughal empire quickly fell into decline.
Bahadur Shah’s son Jahandar Shah rules between 1712 and 1713, but is captured, and strangled to death by the Sayyid Brothers.
Bahadur Shah dies suddenly, but at a relatively old age of 68, which left the empire in disarray.
The Sayyid Brothers help Farrukhsiyar gain control, but he is easily swayed and they have the real power behind the front of the Mughal rule.
Farrukhsiyar sells trading rights through the region of Bengal to the East India Trading Company
Like his brother, Shah Jahan II dies of lung cancer or is murdered. He’s succeeded by Muhammad Shah
The Sayyid Brothers caught Farrukhsiyar in a scheme and had him imprisoned, starved, blinded, and eventually strangled. They place his first cousin, Rafi Ul-Darjat on the throne.
The wars between the Mughals and the southern Marathas tore apart what was left of the empire, which was already falling under ill administration.