The War of 1812 began with fighting off the coast of Nova Scotia between American and French ships at the same time Britain was at war with France. There were many battles at sea between America’s small but effective fleet and Britain’s large but scattered fleet. On the land up north, the U.S invaded Canada, and after a few defeats, managed to burn the Canadian capital, York. On the frontier, the British, even with the help from American Indians, were constantly defeated until they managed to burn Washington D.C. to the ground. The war was ended by the Treaty of Gent, but the United States were in even further war debt and where stuck in trade and boundary disputes.
burningofwashington1814. N.d. arborfamiliae.files.wordpress.comWeb. 27 Feb 2013. <>.
Salvucci, Linda. Call to Freedom. 2005. 350-355. Print.
The Alien and Sedition Acts were two acts passed by Federalists in Congress caused by disputes between Federalists and Republicans. The Alien Act stated that the president could remove foreign residents from the country if they were suspected to be involved in treason or plots against the government. The Sedition Act stated that citizens of the United States could not join any plots against the government’s policies. With the help of the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison tried to have these acts repealed and stated that they were unconstitutional, but where denied by Congress, who ended up not renewing the acts at a later date. The two resolutions, however, supported the idea that state governments could challenge the federal government.
Salvucci, Linda. Call to Freedom. 2005. 322-323. Print.
Alien and Sedition Acts. N.d. Glogster.comWeb. 27 Feb 2013. http://www.glogster.com/swizzbeatz/alien-sedition-acts/g-6lp80lcab0kulcc7m95g5a0.
The XYZ Affair began with President Adams sending three diplomats to Paris to discuss a treaty with France, but the French foreign minister, Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand Périgord, refused to speak with them. Three agents secretly met to the diplomats and stated that Talleyrand would speak to them about a treaty for twenty-five thousand dollars and a loan of twelve million dollars to the French government. When word of the bribe, which was now called the XYZ Affair, reached the United States, many Federalists in Congress called for war on France, but President Adams declined and tried to keep peace, although expanded the naval fleet and created a peacetime army of several thousand soldiers. Some fighting broke out between ships in the Caribbean, but the U.S. and France signed a treaty that stopped the fighting. This event left many Federalists mad with Adams and led to the fighting that caused the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Salvucci, Linda. Call to Freedom. 2005. 321-322. Print.
XYZ Affair Political Cartoon. N.d. core.ecu.eduWeb. 27 Feb 2013. <>.
Washington’s Farewell Address stated that George Washington had decided not to run for a third term as president. He had become “tired of public life” and “devoutly wished for retirement”. With the help of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, he wrote up this document with statements such as what he believed to be the greatest dangers to the American republic and that disagreements between political parties weakened government. Not only that, he expressed his concern about public debt and warned about forming permanent relationships with other countries. This address not only gave America a guideline on what to do when there was a new president, but also reminded the people that they are the country’s true leaders.
Salvucci, Linda. Call to Freedom. 2005. 317-318. Print.
Famous Speeches in History - Washington's Farewell Address. N.d. emersonket.comWeb. 27 Feb 2013. <>.
The Hamilton and Jefferson Era was a time of dispute between the Federalists and the Anti-federalists. Alexander Hamilton, who was a Federalist, and Thomas Jefferson, who was an Anti-federalist, where leaders of their groups. These two men had very different opinions on how the United States should be run. Hamilton was more concerned on economic issues, while Jefferson was concerned in protecting the rights and liberties of the people. Two major things that came out of this period were the creations of a national bank and Washington D.C. Also, the dispute over the national bank brought about new interpretations of the Constitution and the federal government’s authority.
Hamilton-Jefferson. 2011. frumforum.comWeb. 27 Feb 2013. http://www.frumforum.com/its-hamilton-vs-jefferson-all-over-again/.
HAMILTON VS. JEFFERSON:
THE FIGHT FOR CONTROL THAT CREATED BOTH THE NATIONAL BANK & D.C.