Before the Mughal empire set into decline and became vulnerable to colonization, there were a number of different emperors who created a centralized government with delegated landlords and nobles. Starting in 1526 Babur created the empire, and specific policies differed with the different rulers.
Aurangzeb gained the throne in 1658 and expanded the empire to an uncontrollable size at which point uprisings began to occur. His death in 1707 also caused more conflict due to the struggle with succession.
British East India Company's first success came from a victory in Bengal when they defeated the Mughal Governor in the Battle of Plassey.
The British East India Company took advantage of political rivalries between the locals, causing religious division between Hindus and Muslims.
"The Indians were 'packed together so that one bullet would drive through three or four bodies'; the people 'ran madly this way and the other. When fire was directed upon the centre, they ran to the sides. The fire was then directed to the sides. Many threw themselves down on the ground, and the fire was then directed on the ground. This was continued for eight or ten minutes, and it stopped only when the ammunition had reached the point of exhaustion".....Winston Churchill
Hundreds of thousands die in widespread communal bloodshed after partition, notably due to the War with Pakistan over disputed territory of Kashmir. A second war with Pakistan regarding Kashmir would emerge in 1965, and a third over creation of Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) in 1971.
Troops storm Golden Temple - Sikhs' most holy shrine - to flush out Sikh militants pressing for self-rule.
Congress-led coalition survives vote of confidence brought after left-wing parties withdraw their support over controversial nuclear cooperation deal with US. After the vote, several left-wing and regional parties form new alliance to oppose government, saying it has been tainted by corruption.