-Based in Ctesiphon (modern day Iraq) located in southern Mesopotamia
-Parthian kings ruled for nearly half a millennium and influenced politics from Asia Minor to northern India
-They were overthrown by Sassanian armies from southwest Iran in the early third century A.D.
Jesus Christ begins his ministry in Galilee, a small region in the northern section of Israel.
Jesus is sentenced to death and crucified outside of Jerusalem
Earliest Christian Gospel in written down in Syria
St Jerome, in Bethlehem, completes the Latin translation of the Bible, which later becomes known as the Vulgate
-Commissioned by Pope Damasus I
-The definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible in the Roman Catholic Church
Trajan (Roman emperor) captures Petra and Nabataea is annexed and turned into the province of Arabia
Trajan conquers Mesopotamia and the Parthian capital Ctesiphon
130 – Hadrian (Roman emperor and governor of Syria) rebuilds Jerusalem as a Roman city; this prompts an uprising of the Jewish population.
132 CE – Simon Bar Kohkba, a Jewish leader who led the revolts against the Romans in Jerusalem pushes the last of the Romans out of the city
136 – Hadrian definitely crushes the Jewish resistance, forbids Jews from ever entering Jerusalem, and changes the name of the city to Aelia Capitolina
Sassanids surrender to Roman emperor Galerius, who annexes Armenia, Georgia and Upper Mesopotamia
Constantine (Roman emperor) founds the new capital of the Roman Empire on the existing site of the ancient Greek city Byzantium
-Byzantium was renamed Constantinople and it would become the capital of the Byzantine Empire
-Modern day Turkey
Hagia Sophia was completed (Istanbul, Turkey)
Started during the initial Muslim conquests under the expansionist Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs in the 7th century and continued by their successors until the mid-11th century.
-The Sassanids consciously sought to resuscitate Iranian traditions and to obliterate Greek cultural influence.
-Their rule was characterized by considerable centralization, ambitious urban planning, agricultural development, and technological improvements
Ardashir I, a descendant of Sasan who gave his name to the new Sasanian dynasty, defeated the Parthians
Zoroastrian Persia (Sassanids) defeats Christian Armenia
-Zoroastrianism is an ancient Iranian religion and a religious philosophy
Internal revolts following the death of Khosrau I and wars with the Byzantines and Muslims weakens the Sassanid Empire
The Sassanids capture Jerusalem from Byzantium
-Jerusalem falls to the Persian emperor Khosrau II (Sassanids) after a siege of a month
Muslim armies capture Ctesiphon (Iraq), and the Sassanian Empire begins to crumble
Sassanian army defeated at Nahavand (Iran); Persia comes under Muslim rule
The last Sasanian ruler, Yazdegerd III, dies
Muhammad was born in Mecca (Saudi Arabia)
Muhammad travels to Yathrib (Medina) and builds the first Muslim community and gradually gathers more and more people to his side
Mecca becomes the holy city of Islam and soon all Arabia accepts the new religion
632–634: Abu Bakr
The Arab capture of Jerusalem brings Palestine and Syria under Muslim control
Caliph Uthman has the standard copy of the Qur'an written down
Ali (Rashidun Caliphate) is assassinated and Mu'awiya becomes the fifth Muslim caliph, establishing the Umayyad dynasty
-The emergence of the Shi'a party creates a major schism within Islam
661–680: Muawiya I
744–750: Marwan II
Capital is moved to Damascus (Syria)
The Dome of the Rock is completed as a Muslim shrine on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem
Great Mosque of Damascus (Syria)
-It is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. It is considered by some Muslims to be the fourth-holiest place in Islam.
Umayyad Caliphate is defeated at the Battle of Zab (Turkey/Iraq)
1242–1258: Al-Musta'sim (last)
The Ismailis become a separate Shi'a sect when they dispute the succession after the death of the sixth imam
-Followers of Shia Islam believe the caliph should be an imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt (Muhammad's purified progeny).