Conceptions of madness: Divine, Diabolical, Magical and Transcendental
Theories of the four senses of humour (black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood) combined with theories of evil spirits.
Madness → moral issue, either a punishment for sin or a test of faith and character. Christian theology → therapies: fasting, prayer and exorcism
Mental disorder → due to sin or mundane causes: intemperate diet and alcohol, overwork, and grief.
Mental disorder → possession by a djinn (genie): either good or demon-like.
Beatings to exorcise the djin + alternatively overzealous attempts at cures.
Islamic views were often merged with local traditions.
In Morocco, → Berber people were animists: the concept of sorcery was integral to the understanding of mental disorder (mixed with the Islamic concepts of djin and treated by religious scholars)