By Sarah Strom 1st hour 3/4/13 Mrs. Fitzpatrick
Theodore Herzl the founder of political Zionism organized a congress that officially announced Zionism's goal of establishing a legally assured home for Jewish people in the land of Israel.
The British Balfour Declaration promised to create a Jewish homeland in the region comprising the ancient land of Israel.
The Nazi Germans attacked and conquered most of Europe. The Nazis persecuted Jews eventually carrying out a genocide known as the holocaust. This resulted the murder of six million Jews. Although the Jewish population of the Palestine Mandate gave military support to Britain during the war, the British
refused to allow the Jews to flee Nazi persecution and enter the Palestine Mandate .
In 1947 in the midst of growing tension between the Arabs, Jews and the British, Britian announced a plan to pull out of the region and turned the question of sovereignty over to the United Nations
In keeping with the U.N. partition plan, David Ben-Gurion, Israels first prime minister, proclaimed the Independence of the state of Israel on May 14, 1948. The following day, Arab armies from Egypt, Transjordan, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq attacked the new Jewish state. This was the first Arab-Israeli war called by the victorious Israelis the "War of Independence." As a result of the 1948 war, approximately 700,000 Arabs fled or became refugees from the areas over which Israel obtained jurisdiction. The Arabs who remained became Israeli citizens and now comprise of approximately 20% of Israel's population.
Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq moved their armies to Israel's border. As an act of war, according to international law, Egypt closed the international water way, the Straits of Tiran. After weeks of fruitless diplomacy, Israel launched a preemptive strike against the Arab armies mobilized on its borders, and a six-day war ensued between the countries. As a result of the war, Israel captured the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, the Golan Heights from Syria, and the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt.
Egypt and Syria attacked Israel on the holiest day of the Jewish year, Yom Kippur. After initial Arab military successes, the Israelis managed to push back the attack. But, the US convinced Israel to withdraw from the territories it had entered and to kept the territories captured in 1967
As a result of intense diplomatice efforts of the United States, Egypt's president Anwar Sadat, realized that a continuing state of war with Israel was harming the economy and the well being of the people. For this, Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula
Palestinian in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank engaged in an uprising or intifada against Israeli control of these territories. Palestinians attacked Israelis with improvised supplied by the PLO which organized the attack. The Israeli army was trained to fight regular armies, and was not prepared to respond to this kind of attack. This continued until the Oslo Accords were signed in 1993.
The Oslo Accords were a set of agreements that began in 1993 when Israel and the PLO signed a declaration of principles (D.O.P.). The Oslo Accords led to the creation of the Palestinian Authority which had responsibility for administering the territory under its control.
In 1994 Jordan became the second Arab country to recognize Israel. Business, trade, tourism and cultural exchange between nations have increased since the agreement was signed.
In 2002, Israel decided to build a security barrier that would separate its citizens from terrorist groups in the West Bank. The new fence was similar to the security fence Israel built in 1996 that separated the Gaza Strip from Israel. Both fences have been effective in dramatically reducing the number of suicide bombings in Israel coming from the Gaza Strip and West Bank.
Prime Minister Ariel Sharon began a process that led Israel to
one-sidely withdraw from four West Bank settlements and the Gaza Strip as part of a larger policy of “disengagement,” or the
separation of Israel from Palestinian territories. The Gaza
disengagement was very controversial domestically, because Israeli soldiers were required to uproot Israeli citizens who wanted to remain in their communities in Gaza. Nevertheless, Israel decided to remove itself from this territory so that the Palestinians living there could govern themselves and Israel wouldn't do it them selves. After Israel withdrew from Gaza, the number of rocket fired by terrorists from Gaza into Israel increased dramatically.
In January 2006, Palestinians elected a majority of Hamas members to the Palestinian Authority’s legislature over the PLO’s Fatah party that had been in power before. People have speculated that Hamas won the elections because many Palestinians saw the previous government as corrupt. In its charter, Hamas calls for the destruction of Israel and for the killing of Jews. It does not accept previous Palestinian-Israeli agreements.
Between December 27, 2008 and January 18, 2009, Israel attacked Hamas targets in Gaza in order to stop rocket attacks on southern Israel and to disrupt weapons smuggling and terrorist infrastructure. Hundreds of militants were killed. But because Hamas was based in urban places and launched attacks from urban areas, there were also many civilians killed and Gaza’s buildings and economy were heavily damaged.
Before 2011, no Arab state had a democratic government. Beginning in Tunisia on December 18, 2010, citizens in Arab states began to protest against autocratic and oppressive governments. This is known as the Arab Spring.
I have thought a lot about what I believe to happen in the future and really, no one can quite say. Honestly though I think will be a lot of the same stuff that happened in the past. Israel with give away land and hope for peace that will not come. More wars and battles are in store for Israel and Arab countries. Lots of history will repeat itself but we will all hope that peace and a happy ending will eventually come. Thank you for reading my timeline!