Chapter 10

Ignacio Miranda

60% of western Europeans were serfs (peasants legally bound to land)

800

Craftspeople began to organize themselves into guilds from this point on

1000

Peasants cultivated more land when they cut down trees and drained swamps

1000 - 1100

Gregory VII elected pope

1073

Gregory bans lay investiture.

1075

Henry invests a new bishop of Milan, replacing Gregory's choice

1075

Pope Gregory excommunicated King Henry IV of Germany

1076

King Henry IV humbled himself before the pontiff who removed the excommunication

1077

Cistercian order was founded

1098

Song of Roland appeared

1100

Townspeople had numerous rights from local lords

1100

A regular trade had developed between Flanders and Italy

1100

Problems arise between Christian Axum and its Muslim neighbors in Africa

1100

German king and pope reach a compromise called Concordant of Worms

1122

The pope wrote a letter claiming he is the highest authority

1198

Thomas Aquinas made an attempt to reconcile Aristotle

1200

London has more than 40,000 people

1200

Dominic de Guzmán founds Dominican order

1216

the Inquisition added the element of torture to extract confessions

1252

Roger Bacon wrote "Opus Majus"

1260

Kublai Khan establishes the Yuan dynasty in China

1279

King Philip IV engineered the election of Clement V as pope

1305

King Philip VI of France seized the duchy

1337

The first major battle of the Hundred Years' War ocurred

1346

French vs English

75 million people died of the plague

1347 - 1351

Plague spreads to Italy and France

1347

Italian merchants brought the plague to Sicily

October 1347

The plague spread through France

1348 - 1349

Eastern Europe and Russia are affected by the plague

1351

Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome but soon died

1377

With two popes, the Great Schism of the Church began

1378 - 1417

The simultaneous reign of three popes began

1409

King Henry V of England won the Battle of Agincourt

1415

John Hus was accused of heresy and burned at the stake

1415

A church council met at Constance and ended the schism

1417

The English captured Joan of Arc

1430

English capture Joan of Arc during Hundred Years' War

1430

The Czechs' revolutionary upheaval was crushed

1436

King Louis XI ruled France

1461 - 1483

Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon

1469

Ivan III married the niece of the last Byzantine emperor

1472

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella introduced the Inquisition to Spain

1478

Henry Tudor established a new dynasty

1485

the Christian kingdoms' "Reconquista" ended

1492

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella said that the Jews must leave Spain

1492

Christopher Columbus reaches the Americas

1492

Baptized Muslims and Protestants also became victims of the Inquisition

1500

Eighty universities exist throughout Europe

1500