Human Evolution Timeline

By: James Braddock

Main

Sahelanthropus Tchadensis

7,000,000 BC - 6,000,000 BC

chimpanzee sized brain, walked upright on two legs, and had smaller canines like other early humans.

Sahelanthropus Tchadensis video

Australopithecus Afarensis

3850000 bc - 2950000 bc

Species which "Lucy" belonged to. Has apelike proportions of the face, and strong arms with curved fingers for climbing. But, had small canine teeth and body that stood and walked upright on arched feet. Was able to survive dramatic climate fluctuations.
Australopithecus Afarensis

Paranthropus Boisei

2300000 bc - 1200000 bc

Had a bony ridge on the midline on the top of the skull. This crest anchored large chewing muscles from the top and side of the braincase to the lower jaw. Lived among Homo Erectus.
Paranthropus Boisei

Homo Sapiens

200000 bc - 2013

We are the sole surviving species of our family species.
Homo Sapiens

layer 2

Orrorin Tugenensis

6200000 bc - 5800000 bc

Two femur bones show it walked upright, but other parts showed ape like features. Had long curved finger bones and ape like teeth.
Orrorin Tuugenensis

Australopithecus Africanus

3300000 bc - 2100000 bc

First early human species to be discovered on the continent of Africa. Members of this species was mostly vegetarian, and had diets much like the modern chimpanzee. Due to wear on the molars, we know that they ate tough foods.
Australopithecus Africanus

Homo Erectus

1890000 bc - 143000 bc

Evidence that the first early humans to make hearths, to eat significant meat and bone marrow, and take care of the old and weak. Longest lived species in the human evolution timeline.
Homo Erectus

layer 3

Ardipithecus Kadabba

5800000 bc - 5200000 bc

Teeth showed primitive features. Evidence that it lived in more closed, wooden areas helps demonstrate that upright walking did not evolve in an open Savanna environment
Ardipithecus Kadabba

Paranthropus Aethiopicus

2700000 bc - 2300000 bc

The bony ridge on the top of the skull in this species indicates huge chewing muscles, with a strong emphasis on the muscles that connect toward the back of the crest and created strong chewing forces on the front teeth.
Paranthropus Aethiopicus

Homo Rudolfensis

1900000 bc - 1800000 bc

Very similar to Homo Habilis, but it has larger braincase, longer face, and larger molar and premolar teeth.
Homo Rudolfensis

Paranthropus Robustus

1800000 bc - 1200000 bc

Had a bony ridge on the top of the skull, and had a massive face. Both were used for chewing tough food.
Paranthropus Robustus

Homo Floresiensis

95000 bc - 17000 bc

Most recently went extinct, and co existed with humans throughout their duration. Their small size may be attributed to island dwarfing.
Homo Floresiensis

layer 4

Ardipithecus Ramidus

4500000 bc - 4300000 bc

Walked upright, but opposable big toes helped climb trees. A good sample of canine teeth indicate, very little size difference between males and females.
Ardipithecus Ramidus

Australopithecus Garhi

2600000 bc - 2400000 bc

This species has teeth and face similar to Australopithecus Afarensis, but some dental features more similar to Homo. A longer femur is indicated, but long powerful arms were still maintained.
Australopithecus Garhi

Australopithecus Sediba

1950000 bc - 1780000 bc

May have lived in savannas but ate fruit and other foods from the forest - behavior similar to modern-day savanna chimpanzees.
Australopithecus Sediba

Homo Heidelbergensis

700000 bc - 200000 bc

First early humans to venture to the chilly climate of northern Europe. Evidence that they were the first to build shelters, and to hunt "big game" with spears.
Homo Heidelbergensis

layer 5

Australopithecus Anamensis

4200000 bc - 3900000 bc

Upper end of tibia shows expanded area of bone, indicative of regular bipedal walking. Lived in riverine woodlands and gallery forests habitats.
Australopithecus Anamensis

Homo Habilis

2400000 bc - 1400000 bc

This species is thought to represent the first stone toolmaker. Discovered in the 1960's.
Homo Habilis

Homo Neanderthalensis

200000 bc - 28000 bc

Huge nose humidifies and warms the cool dry air. Bodies are shaped for heat conservation. First early humans to wear clothing. May have been first species to have language, bury their dead, and have symbolic ceremonies.
Homo Neanderthalensis