European Herstory 1 B.C.E. - 2013 C.E.


*Edict of Milan

313 C.E.

313 Edict of Milan is issued. Christians are now tolerated in the Roman Empire.

Byzantine Empire

395 - 1453


400 C.E. - 1400 C.E.

Fall of Rome

476 CE

Source: Britannica


570 C.E. - 632 C.E.

570 Muhammad born. Syria, Jerusalem, Egypt, Persia, & N. Africa fall to Muslim armies many decades later.
632 Muhammad dies.

First Crusade

1096 - 1098

Source: Alone of All Her Sex by Warner (pg 352)

Second Crusade

1147 - 1149

Source: Alone of All Her Sex by Warner (pg. 353)

Third Crusade

1189 - 1193

Source: Alone of All Her Sex by Warner (pg. 353)

Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

Source: Alone of All Her Sex by Warner (pg 354)

Fall of Constantinople


Source: Alone of All Her Sex by Warner (pg. 354)

The Rise of Female Kings in Europe

1300 - 1800

"Between 1300-1800 thirty women acquired official sovereign authority over major European states above the level of duchies" (Monter ix).

"Derived from Old English cwen, meaning 'wife of king,' [queen] collapses the huge difference between its original and primary meaning and woman who wields supreme monarchical authority with divine approval in her own right. English, like Latin and other major European vernaculars, has no feminine form of king" (xvi).

*Great Famine

1315 A.D. - 1317 A.D.

Great Famine of 1315-1317Torrential rains and cool weather devastate crops in Europe. Millions die. Criminal activity increases. Acts of cannibalism, infanticide, and child abandonment abound.

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

"Struggle between England and France in the 14th–15th century over a series of disputes, including the question of the legitimate succession to the French crown" (Britannica)

*The Black Plague (Bubonic Plague)

1348 A.D. - 1350 A.D.

348 The Black Plague (aka Bubonic) in Europe kills about 75 million. Contemporary accounts place the death toll at one third of inhabitants. Vast social changes result. Workers become a scarce commodity, increasing their bargaining power with employers. Farm land reverts back to forests as the number of farmers decrease.

*First documented black African slave imported into Europe

1441 C.E.

1441 First documented black African slaves imported into Europe.

Utopia Published


The Elizabethean Era*

1558 - 1603

The Enlightenment*

1700 - 1789

"Women did not have an Enlightenment. They had many Enlightenments" (Fox-Genovese 271).

"In theory, the work of philosophes opened the door to imagining women's equality with men by positing women's interchangability with men as individuals...But if the Enlightenmnet thinkers stopped short of the full implications for women's identity of their logic, they did overturn the concept of women's inferiority" (269).
Source: Becoming Visible

French Revolutionary Era*

1789 - 1815

Appendix III page 1286 Europe Book

Source: Becoming Visible
-militancy of revoluntionary women threathened male revolutionaries
-under Napolenoic code women had no political rights, legal status was dependents

The Victorian Era*

1830 - 1901

Daguerreotype Technology Published


1839, Louis Daguerre sold the rights of the 'daguerreotype’ to the French government, who proceeded to immediately publish the technology, as a free gift to the world. (Gustavson & House, 2009). The daguerreotype was an early photographic process where a single image was directly exposed onto a metal plate.

Manifesto of the Communist Party Published


Written by Karl Marx

Collodion Process of Photography


The collodion process superseded the daguerreotype in 1851 when the glass plate negative was developed. The collodion process provided the ability, to reproduce fine detail in multiple prints (Newhall, 1938). This was a watershed moment for photography, which, translated into a watershed moment for pornography. The ability to produce multiple copies of a photograph led to the industrialization of pornographic photographs.

World War I

1914 C.E. - 1918 C.E.

Armenian Genocide

1915 - 1918


1922 - 1991

Stalin's Force Famine

1932 - 1933


World War II

1939 - 1945

The Cold War*

1947 - 1991

Bolshevik coup de''etat, totalitarian, Communist/Party Senate. Terror.

Dictators: Lenin (to 1924) J.V. Stalin 'Vozhd' (to 1953)

Appendix III in big Europe Book

Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Council of Europe (Start of EU)

1949 - 2013

"The historical roots of the European Union lie in the Second World War. Europeans are determined to prevent such killing and destruction ever happening again. Soon after the war, Europe is split into East and West as the 40-year-long Cold War begins. West European nations create the Council of Europe in 1949. It is a first step towards cooperation between them, but six countries want to go further."

Creation of Europe Day


9 May 1950 — French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman presents a plan for deeper cooperation. Later, every 9 May is celebrated as 'Europe Day'.

Convention on Human Rights

1950 - 1953

Signed in 1950, put into Force 1953

"The Convention secures in
• the right to life,
• the right to a fair hearing,
• the right to respect for
private and family life,
• freedom of expression,
• freedom of thought,
conscience and religion and,
• the protection of property.
The Convention prohibits in
• torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,
• slavery and forced labour,
• death penalty,
• arbitrary and unlawful detention, and
• discrimination in the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms
set out in the Convention"

Schuman Plan


18 April 1951

"Based on the Schuman plan, six countries sign a treaty to run their heavy industries – coal and steel – under a common management. In this way, none can on its own make the weapons of war to turn against the other, as in the past. The six are Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg."

European Court of Justice

1951 - 2013

Established under the Treaty of Paris

Enforces European Union Laws

War in Vietnam

1955 C.E. - 1975 C.E.



"The Soviet Union beats the United States in the space race by launching the first manmade space satellite, Sputnik 1, in 1957.Sputnik 1 orbits the earth at a height of 800 km. In 1961, Soviet Union wins again with the first cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, whose spacecraft is just 2.6m in diameter."

European Economic Community (EEC) Created


"Building on the success of the Coal and Steel Treaty, the six countries expand cooperation to other economic sectors. They sign the Treaty of Rome, creating the European Economic Community (EEC), or ‘ common market ’. The idea is for people, goods and services to move freely across borders."

European Court of Human Rights

1959 - 2013

"It rules on individual
or State applications alleging violations of the civil and
political rights set out in the European Convention on
Human Rights."

Common Agriculture Policy Created


"The EU starts its ‘ common agricultural policy ’ giving the countries joint control over food production. Farmers are paid the same price for their produce. The EU grows enough food for its needs and farmers earn well. The unwanted side-effect is overproduction with mountains of surplus produce. Since the 1990s, priorities have been to cut surpluses and raise food quality."

EU Membership Increases (6-9 Countries)


The six become nine when Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom formally enter the EU.
Member States: Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.

New Member States: Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

Communism Ends In Poland


"The Fall of Communism in Poland

In July 1980 the Polish government announced 100% rises in the price of some foods. The result was strikes across Poland. In August 1980 the Lenin shipyards in Gdansk went on strike. Led by an electrician named Lech Walesa the workers occupied the yards. They drew up a list of demands including freedom of the press, the release of political prisoners and the right to form independent trade unions.

On 31 August the Communists surrendered. They made the Gdansk agreement and accepted the Polish workers demands.

The workers formed the Solidarity Trade Union, which soon became a mass movement. However the Communists fought back. In December 1981 General Wojciech Jaruzelski imposed martial law on Poland. Solidarity was banned and its leaders were arrested.

Jaruzelski declared a 'state of war'. However the war between the workers and the Communists continued. The economic crisis continued. Poland's debts grew larger and larger. Wages did not keep up with price rises. Meanwhile the workers continued to hold strikes and Solidarity went underground.

Eventually, in 1988 the Communists gave in and Jaruzelski called for a 'courageous turnaround'. In 1989 the Communists and Solidarity held talks. The government agreed to legalise Solidarity and allow freedom of the press. The Communists also agreed that the Sejm (Polish parliament) should be partly democratically elected. The Communists would keep at least 65% of the seats in the lower house but the other 35% would be freely elected. All the seats in the upper house would be freely elected.

The elections were held on 4 June 1989. Solidarity won 35% of the seats of the lower house and 99% of the seats in the upper house. It was a humiliating defeat for the Communists. In August 1989 Tadeusz Mazowiecki became Prime Minister of Poland. The Communist tyranny was over.

Finally in 1990 Lech Walesa was elected President. In October 1991 completely free elections for the Sejm were held."

Bosnia-Herzegovina Genocide

1992 - 1995

Euro launched in world market

January 1, 1999

European Union. (2012). In CIA World Factbook. Retrieved from

Charter of Fundamental Rights


Adopted in 2000
"European Union text on human rights and fundamental

France bans hijab/burka/niqab

April 11 2011

European Herstory



Birth Of Jesus Christ

1 C.E.

Jesus's Public Ministry

26 C.E. - 30 C.E.

The Chronology of Jesus' Public Ministry
Clyde Weber Votaw
The Biblical World
Vol. 26, No. 6 (Dec., 1905), pp. 425-430
Published by: The University of Chicago Press
Stable URL:

Wife of Pilate tries to stop crucifixion of Christ

30 CE

His wife was Claudia Procula, granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus...She was a princess royal, sophisticated, cultured, and sensitive. Perhaps it was through her that Pilate got this particular appointment, rather than for his diplomatic tact.
Who's Who in the Roman Empire (Pontius Pilate)
His wife sends him word of her dream (Matt. 27:19) -Britannica

Death of Jesus Christ

30 C.E.

Saul (later to be Paul) has an apparition of Jesus

35 C.E.

Saul of Tarsus has an apparition of Jesus Christ and is converted to Christianity.

St. Peter Becomes the First Catholic Pope

60 C.E.

Practice of Christianity becomes a Capital Crime

64 C.E.

First persecution of the Christians by Nero, who blames them for setting a fire that burned much of Rome. Christianity soon after becomes a capital crime.

Martyrdom of St. Peter, the first Pope

67 C.E.

Gospel of Thomas

100 CE - 200 CE

Source: Warner

Passage from the Gospel of Thomas:
"Simon Peter said to them [the disciples]: 'Let Mary leave us, for women are not worthy of Life.' Jesus said, I myself lead her, in order to make her male, so that she too may become a living spirit, resembling you males. For every woman who will make herself male will enter the Kingdom of Heaven'"
(Pagels 49).

Persecution of Christians under Hadrian

117 C.E. - 138 C.E.

Emperor Hadrian excludes Jews from Jerusalem

135 C.E.

Emperor Hadrian excludes Jews from Jerusalem

Septimius Severus tries to establish one common religion in Rome

202 C.E.

Emperor Septimius Severus persecutes Christians with the aim of establishing one common religion in the Empire.

Second Council of Constantinople*


"At the Second Council of Constantinople in 381, [Mary's] perpetual virginity was proclaimed" (Warner 64).

Alone of All Her Sex

St. Augustine (son of St. Monica) writes City of God*

413 - 426

"The son of God chose to be born from a virgin mother because this was the only way a child could enter the world without sin. 'Let us love chastity above all things,' August wrote, 'for it was to show that this was pleasing to im that Christ chose the modesty of a virgin womb.' Augustine thus bound up three ideas in a casual chain: the sinfulness of sex, the virgin birth, and the good of virginity" (Warner 54).

"Woman was womb and womb was evil: this cluster of ideas endemic to Christianity is but the extension of Augustine's argument about original sin" (Warner 57).

Basically, under the influence of his mother Monica, St. Augustine rewired how Christian society views sex to this day.

Council of Ephesus - Theotokos*


"Mary was proclaimed Theotokos (mother of God)" (Warner 65)

Prior to this: Debate surrounding title of Theotokos and Christokos (mother of Christ). Many opposed Theotokos title because "she could not be the mother of God, because God had always been...the use of such an extravagant title dangerously exaggerated her standing and raised her to the rank of goddess" (65)

Council of Chalcedon*


"The Virgin was officially given the title Aeiparthenos (ever-virgin) and her virginity at the conception, in partu, and post partum thereby affirmed" (Warner 65-66)

Source: Alone of All Her Sex

Fourth Lateran Council*


"Pope Martin I declared Mary's perpetual virginity a dogma of the Church" (Warner 66).

Feast of Annunciation, Dormition, Purification and Nativity introduced to Rome


During the "papacy of Sergius I...[the] feasts of Annunciation, Dormition, Purification, and Nativity of the Virgin" are introduced "to Rome" (Warner 350)

Alone of All Her Sex


1140 - 1400

"a heretical Christian sect that flourished in western Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries" (Britannica)

"...the movement gave genuine equality to women, who could become priests of its highest order of 'Perfects'...the Cathars, in spirte of the rigorous asceticism of their ideals, believed that casual fornication and buggery were less reprehensible than organized or institutionalized sex, as in marriage, because procreation perpetuated the material universe" (Warner 144).

Medieval Inquisition

1231 C.E. - 1400 C.E.

Pope Gregory IX authorizes Dominicans to examine Cathar and other Christian heretics in southern France and Italy, the so-called "medieval inquisitions."

End date undetermined. Just know that it goes through the whole period


Summa theologiae*

1265 - 1273

St. Thomas Aquinas writes "Summa theologiae" which is theology based on both the philosophy of Aristotle and the church (Britannica).

"[St. Thomas Aquinas] saw man as the vital source of life, and woman soley as the incubator, the blood-transfusion unit. Dante, describing and expanding Aquinas, summed it up: woman as passive, man as the active virtue" (Warner 41).

Nuns start to act more like men


Teresa of Avila reforms Carmelite Order


"The Carmelites, who claimed descent from the prophet Elijah and his band of hermits on Mount Carmels, developed a new type of Immaculate Virgin...they professed a special devotion to the cult of her conception" (Warner 243).

"Teresa of Avila." Cambridge Dictionary of Christian Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Credo Reference. Web. 05 May 2013.

Council of Trent (Marriage Becomes a Sacrament)


"Given the Catholic Church's contemporary view on the sanctity of marriage, it comes as a surprise that matrimony was only definitely proclaimed a sacrament and the Church ceremony decreed an indispensable condition of validity as late as 1563 at the Council of Trent" (Warner 145).

Raphael - Madonna dell Granduca (1505)

Official "Hail Mary" introduced


Marian vision at Lourdes


Pope Leo XIII issued De Rerum Novarum


"Pope Leo XIII in 1891 issued an encyclical, De Rerum Novarum, which stated:

'Women, again are not suited to certain trades; for a woman is by nature fitted for home work and it is this which is best adapted at once preserve her modesty, and to promote the good bringing up of children and the well-being of family"

-Women Between the Two Wars

Visions at Fatima


Pope Pius XI called for end to married women's employment


"In 1931, Pope Pius XI called for an end to married women's employment on the grounds that it debased the womanly character and the dignity of motherhood and indeed of the whole family..." (A History of Their Own 208)

Pope John Paul II's Theology of the Body

September 1979 - November 1984

*Important Women

Livia Drusilla Augusta

58 BCE - 29 CE

the wife of Augustus and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus' faithful advise

"Livia (Wife of Augustus)

(Claudia) Livia Julia

13 CE - 31 CE

only daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor. She was twice married to the potential successor in the Julio-Claudian dynasty, first to Augustus' grandson Gaius Caesar (died 4 AD) and later toTiberius' son Drusus (died 23 AD).
Allegedly, she helped her lover Sejanus in poisoning her husband and died shortly after Sejanus fell from power in 31 AD.

Julia Agrippina

15 C.E - 59 C.E

Crazy mother of Nero.

Source: Who's Who in The Roman World, Routledge

Ulpia Marciana

30 CE - 48 CE

The beloved elder sister of Roman Emperor Trajan. After 105, her brother awarded her with the title of Augusta.

Poppaea Sabina

30 CE - 65 CE

Roman Empress as the second wife of the Emperor Nero. Prior to this she was the wife of the future Emperor Otho. was kicked to death for criticizing Nero.

Marcia- Mother of Trajan

33 CE - 100 CE

Marcia owned clay-bearing estates called the Figlinae Marcianae, which was located in North Italy. When Marcia died, Trajan inherited these estates from his mother. It is unknown if Marcia lived long enough to see Trajan become Emperor.

Salonina Matidia

68 CE - 119 CE

The daughter and only child of Ulpia Marciana and wealthy praetor Gaius Salonius Matidius Patruinus. Her maternal uncle was the Roman Emperor Trajan. When Trajan died in 117, Matidia and Plotina brought the emperor's ashes back to Rome. In 119 Matidia died, whereupon the Roman Emperor Hadriandelivered her funeral oration, deified her and granted her a temple and altar in Rome itself.

Marcia Furnilla

69 CE - 96 CE

Roman noble woman and the last wife of the Roman Emperor Titus. Furnilla’s family was connected to the opponents of Roman Emperor Nero. Furnilla’s family was disfavored by Nero. Titus decided that he didn’t want to be connected with any potential plotters and ended his marriage to Furnilla.

Pagan and Christian Rome. by Rodolfo Lanciani published by Houghton, Mifflin and Company
Boston and New York, 1892 © William P. Thayer

Pompeia Plotina Claudia Phoebe Piso

98 CE - 117 CE

Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Trajan. She was renowned for her interest in philosophy, and her virtue, dignity and simplicity. She was particularly devoted to the Epicurean-philosophical school in Athens, Greece.[1] Through her influence, she provided Romans with fairer taxation, improved education, assisted the poor, and created tolerance in Roman society.

Paris, L’Harmattan, 2012, ch. 6, La vie de Plotine, femme de Trajan, p. 147-168.

Manlia Scantilla and daughter, Didia Clara

133 CE - 193 CE

Didius Julianus' wife and his daughter were given the name Augusta

Annia Aurelia Fadilla

159 CE - 192 CE

influential Roman Princess and was one of the daughters born to Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Roman Empress Faustina the Younger.

Marcia Aurelia Ceionia Demetrias

161 CE - 192 CE

the mistress and one of the assassins of 2nd century AD Roman Emperor Commodus from 182–93. Marcia was the daughter of Marcia Aurelius Sabinianus, a freedwoman of the co-emperor Lucius Verus

Julia Domna

170 CE - 217 CE

a member of the Severan dynasty of the Roman Empire. Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Lucius Septimius Severus and mother of Emperors Geta and Caracalla, Julia was among the most important women ever to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman Empire.

St. Helena*

248 CE - 328 CE

"When her son Constantine I the Great became emperor at York (306 CE), he made her empress dowager, and under his influence she later became a Christian."

"Helena made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. She caused churches to be built on the reputed sites of the Nativity and of the Ascension." -Britannica

St. Monica*

333 C.E. - 387 C.E.

Patron Saint of patience and mothers. Mother of St. Augustine

St. Augustine had the most influence on view of celibacy and sex. (The Origins of Sex by Faramerz Dabhoiwala)


355 C.E. - 415 C.E.

"She was, in her time, the world's leading mathematician and astronomer, the only woman for whom such claim can be made. She was also a popular teacher and lecturer on philosophical topics of a less-specialist nature, attracting many loyal students and large audiences. Her philosophy was Neoplatonist and was thus seen as “pagan” at a time of bitter religious conflict between Christians (both orthodox and “heretical”), Jews, and pagans. Her Neoplatonism was concerned with the approach to the One, an underlying reality partially accessible via the human power of abstraction from the Platonic forms, themselves abstractions from the world of everyday reality. Her philosophy also led her to embrace a life of dedicated virginity."


780 CE - 802 CE

(Reigned 780-802 CE)
-Coemperor with her son Constantine VI
-"The second Council of Nicaea is convened by Byzantine ruler Irene to settle the question of worshipping icons. The bishops rule in favour of icon worship."
-organized conspiracy against her son, ruled alone as emperor (not empress) for five years until exiled to Lesbos
-considered a saint in the Greek Orthodox Church

Britiannica: 300 Women Who Changed the World


1042 - 1056

"Byzantine empress who reigned jointly with her sister Zoe in 1042 and on her own in 1055–56" (Britannica)

Eleanor of Aqutaine*

1137 - 1204

-"accompanies her husband, French King Louis VII, on the Second Crusade"
-"She was perhaps the most powerful woman in 12th-century Europe."
-"patron of two dominant poetic movements at the time"
-supported her sons revolt against her husband, but it failed
-in absence of Richard I, kept kingdom intact

Joan of Arc

1429 - 1431

"Joan’s role in history was shaped by the Hundred Years War (1337–1453), which was essentially a dynastic conflict between the kings of France and England for the control of France."

"With an army of about four thousand, Joan began the Orleans campaign on 29 April 1429 and by 8 May 1429 she had succeeded in lifting the siege."

English were convinced she was a witch. Considered her a heretic for hearing voices. Burnt at the stake.

"..she headed many of her letters “Jhesu Maria” (“Jesus Mary”), which was also inscribed on her military banners. Joan also understood the indispensable significance of her virginity in setting herself apart from other women and fulfilling her mission to save France-just as theologians did with Mary-and called herself not “Jeanne d'Arc” but “Jean la Pucelle” (“Joan the Maiden”), or simply “La Pucelle.” Joan's virginity would help her redeem France, a country allegedly (according to English propaganda) lost through Queen Isabel's promiscuity (nullifying Charles VII's claim to the throne)."-Women in the Middle Ages: Encyclopedia)

Margaret of Denmark

1469 C.E.

As her dowry when marrying King James III she brought Orkney and Shetland from Danish rule to Scotland


Isabel the Catholic of Castile

1474 - 1504

"Reigns jointly with husband until her death in 1504" (Monter)
"...after 1300 Latin Europe produced four female monarchs...who governed major states for at least thirty years" (Monter)
"sponsered Christopher Columbus's voyages that resulted in the discovery of the New World" (Encyclopedia of World Trade..)

"After Granada, the last Spanish stronghold in Spain fell to her armies in 1492, she ordered all Jews expelled from the country" (Encyclopedia of World Trade...)
"Isabel maximized the possibilities of a married woman in a dual monarchy in which her kingdom held most of the join resources...yet...her husband held far more authority in her kingdom than she did in his" (Monter 52).

Mary Tudor

1553 - 1558

-"Thirty-six, inherits England, marries younger cousin (already with royal status), who becomes coruler without coronation or defined political status"

Elizabeth I of England

1558 - 1603

"...twenty-five, Europe's first female monarch who never married" (Monter xii)
"Elizabeth I dodged the burdens of marriage and dynastic reproduction while presenting herself as either (virgin) mother of her subjects or wife of her kingdom, in either role providing safety and prosperity through prudent stewardship" (Monter 52).

Catherine de Medici (France)

1560 - 1574

"daughter of Lorenzo de Medici"
"...she became regent for her son Charles IX"
"...she took part in the planning of the massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day (1572) which hundreds of Protestants were murdered" (The Columbia Encyclopedia)
"Catherine developed a cumbersome system of opening every official letter addressed to the king and composing two answers, one from her (the real response) and one from the king(the official response)" (Monter 110).
"She introduced France to such Italian refinements as ballet, forks, and handkerchiefs" (Monter 112)

Christina of Sweden

1644 - 1651

"[Christina] was the only female monarch in Europe--and by far the youngest of either sex-- to abdicate voluntarily after governing successfully for at least ten years. She also became the only dogmatically misogynist female monarch" (Monter 146).

Mary II

1689 - 1694

"Mary II, twenty seven, crowned as joint ruler of England with usurper husband, William III of Orange; died childless in 1694, succeeded by husband" (Monter xii).

Catherine I

1724 - 1727

-widow of Peter the Great
-"Europe's only illiterate female ruler, she..offered its best example of female promotion based on political merit" (183).
-"The most extraordinary honor Peter bestowed on Catherine was to crown her as empress in 1724, an unprecedented event which began Russia's 'uncharted and unplanned journey towards female rule'" (Monter 183).


1730 - 1740

"Anna, thirty-four, childless widowed niece of Peter the Great, becomes Russian autocrat by tearing up constitution" (Monter xiii)

Maria Theresa

1741 - 1780

"Maria Theresa, twenty-four and married, crowned as king of Hungary under Pragmatic Sanction' also crowned king of Bohemia 1743" (Monter xiii)
"Maria Theresa, flanked by a husband with an imperial title and a large flock of children, maximized the strategy of becoming truly the 'mother of her country'" (52).


1741 - 1762

"Elisabeth, thirty-two, daughter of Peter I and Catherine, becomes Russian autocrat after coup d'etat; never marries; dies 1762, succeeded by son" (Monter xiii).

Dorothea Erxleben: the first woman doctor in Germany

1754 C.E.


1755 - 1793

Catherine the Great (Catherine II)

1762 - 1796

"Catherine II, thirty-three, becomes Russian autocrat after overthrowing husband in coup d'etat..." (Monter xiii)
"...the foreign-born Catherine II had usurped her throne from an incompetent and overtly foreign husband. She compensated by becoming a patriot in her adopted country and working tirelessly to acquire both glory for herself and improved conditions for her subjects, ultimately becoming the only female ruler generally known as the Great both at home and abroad" (53).

Jane Austen

1775 - 1817

Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), Emma (1815), and Northanger Abbey and Persuasion (published posthumously, 1817).

Female tailors are allowed into the guild of tailors in France

1776 C.E.

unmarried women are allowed to leave their town to give birth anonymously

1778 C.E.

unmarried women are allowed to leave their home town to give birth anonymously and have the birth registered anonymously, to refrain from answering any questions about the birth and, if they choose to keep their child, to have their unmarried status not mentioned in official documents to avoid social embarrassment.

Olympe de Gouges writes Declaration of the Rights of Woman


Mary Wollestonecraft writes A Vindication of the Rights of Women


Mary Wollstonecraft Shelly

1797 - 1851

Daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft; Author of: Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818, revised 1831)

Elizabeth Barrett Browning

1806 - 1861

Sonnets are usually written by males adoring women. Browning overturns this norm when she publishes Sonnets from the Portuguese in 1850. For once, the sonnet author is a woman and the objectified lover is a man.

Marie Curie

1867 - 1934

Polish-born French physicist, famous for her work on radioactivity and twice a winner of the Nobel Prize. With Henri Becquerel and her husband, Pierre Curie, she was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics. She was the sole winner of the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, and she is the only woman to win the award in two different fields.

Emma Goldman "Red Emma"

1869 - 1940

Famous Lithuanian writer. Most known for her avid support of Anarchy

Marie Stopes

1880 - 1958

"In 1918, the Englishwoman Marie Stopes published Married Love and Wise Parenthood, advocating birth control; both became best-sellers and were widely translated. Stopes successfully opened the first English birth control clinic in 1921.

Virginia Woolf

1882 - 1941

Wrote a "A Room of One's Own," lamenting why women have been left out of history, specifically why women have not been on the forefront of fiction literature.


1894 - 1917

-Empress consort of Tsar Nicholas II
-her misrule during WWI precipitated the collapse of the imperial government in March 1917
-imprisoned and killed by the Bolsheviks along with her family

Margaret Thatcher

1925 - 2013

British politician and prime minister from 1979-1990
Controversial figure who "advocated individual initiative, confronted the labour unions, privatized national industries and utilities and attempted to privatize aspects of health care and education, pursued a strong monetarist policy, and endorsed a firm commitment to NATO. Her landslide victory in 1983 owed partly to her decisive leadership in the Falkland Islands War."

Simone de Beauvoir writes "The Second Sex"


The Second Sex, originally published in two volumes in 1949. In it, alluding to a pantheon of literary, mythical, and historical sources, she expounded on what she defined as traditional patriarchy’s perpetuation of the “eternal feminine.” Because of the continued bias toward the male as being superior in all things and the placement of social constraints on women that forever subordinated them as the physically weak “other,” women had failed to attain their freedom and independence.

Beauvoir, Simone de. (2001). In Encyclopedia of Women Social Reformers. Retrieved from

Elizabeth II

1952 - 2013

in full Elizabeth Alexandra Mary , officially Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
born April 21, 1926, London, England

Elizabeth II, 1985.
Karsh—Camera Press/Globe Photos
queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from February 6, 1952.

Diana Princess Of Wales

1961 - 1997

Pat Mainardi

1970 - 2013

Wrote "The Politics of Housework"

Angela Merkel

November 22 2005

First woman to hold office of chancellor in Germany

Merkel, Angela. (2009). In Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Laws/Rights for women

Russia bans gender segregation*

1718 C.E.

Source: Barbara Alpern Engel: Women in Russia, 1700–2000

Russia bans forced marrage*

1722 C.E.

In France, noble widows are known to have voted to the French States-General

1788 C.E. - 1789 C.E.

Divorce is legalized for both sexes in France

1792 - 1804

Abolished in 1804

French Parliament discusses women suffrage*

1793 C.E.

(women's right to vote is acknowledged as a principle, but it is still put aside with the explanation that the time is not right to make this a reality and is therefore postponed)

Austrian married are able to choose profession*

1811 C.E.

and to choose a profession

Source: Richard J Evans (1979). Kvinnorörelsens historia i Europa, USA, Australien och Nya Zeeland 1840–1920

In Sweeden married businesswomen can make decisions about their affairs

1811 C.E.

In Sweden Midwifes are given surgical status*

1829 C.E.

unusual in Europe at the time
Allowed to use surgical instruments

Source: History of Sweden: "What every Swede should know"

Custody of Infants Act*

1839 C.E.

This was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Greatly influenced by the reformist opinions of Caroline Norton who had a failed marriage with a violent husband. Her argument for the natural right of mothers to have custody of their children won much sympathy among parliamentarians.

it is now customary that the mother gets custody of the children in most cases.

Source: Wroath, John (1998). Until They Are Seven, The Origins of Women's Legal Rights. Waterside Press.

In Bulgaria the first girls school made being a teacher available for women

1841 C.E.

In Sweden trade and craft work professions are opened to all unmarried women

1846 C.E.

In france elementary school for both sexes but girls are to be tutored by church

1850 C.E.

Source: Women's Emancipation Movements in Europe, America and Australasia, 1840–1920

Swedish women are allowed to be teachers*

1853 C.E.

Source: Inger Hultgren (Swedish): Kvinnors organisation och samhällets beslutsprocess (1982)

Matrimonial Causes Act*

1857 C.E.

makes divorce possible for both sexes. an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Act reformed the law on divorce, moving litigation from the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to the civil courts, establishing a model of marriage based on contract rather than sacrament and widening the availability of divorce beyond those who could afford to bring proceedings for annulment or to promote a private Bill.

In Sweden the position of college teacher at public institutions open to women

1859 C.E.

Women in Denmark allowed to teach*

1859 C.E.

n Russia women are allowed to audit university lectures

1859 C.E - 1863 C.E.

Source: Barbara Alpern Engel: Women in Russia, 1700–2000

Julie-Victoire Daubié- first French female student*

1861 C.E.

Source: The Riverside Dictionary of Biography: A Comprehensive Reference Covering 10,000 of the World's Most Important People, From Ancient Times To The Present Day, ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston New York, 2005.

Högre lärarinneseminariet

1861 C.E.

In Sweden, the first public institution of higher academic learning for women, Högre lärarinneseminariet, is opened.

Medical Surgery Academy open laboratories for women

1861 C.E. - 1864 C.E.

In Russia The Scientific- and Medical Surgery Academy open laboratories for women. retracted in three years

Source: Barbara Alpern Engel: Women in Russia, 1700–2000

Swedish women can become dentists*

1861 C.E.

women in Denmark go to college*

1863 C.E.

Swedish men forbidden to abuse their wives*

1864 C.E.

Source: Palmquist, Christer; Widberg, Hans Kristian (2004). Millenium Samhällskunskap A. Bonniers. p. 317.

In Sweden unmarried women are granted the same rights within trade

1864 C.E.

Equal inheritance in Italy*

1865 C.E.

Source: Judith Jeffrey Howard, “The Civil Code of 1865 and the Origins of the Feminist Movement in Italy”, in The Italian Immigrant Woman in North America, eds. Betty Boyd Caroli, Robert F. Harney and Lydio F. Thomasi (Toronto: The Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1977)

Norway: Legal majority for unmarried women same age as men

1869 C.E.

Sweden: Women allowed to work in the railway office

1869 C.E.

Married Women's Property Act*

1870 C.E.

The Married Women's Property Act 1870 (33 & 34 Vict. c.93) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that allowed women to be the legal owners of the money they earned and to inherit property.

Swedish women able to choose their own partner*

1872 C.E.

Arranged marriages are thereby banned (the noblewomen, however, not granted the same right until 1882)

Betty Pettersson first Swedish female student*

1873 C.E.

Custody of Infants Act*

1873 C.E.

Mothers granted guardianship for children at divorce.

France: First trade union open to women.

1874 C.E.

Aletta Jacobs first woman in Netherlands to Study medicine*

1874 C.E.

Denmark: Universities open to women*

1875 C.E.

Source: Little Focus Encyclopedia

Italy: Women can serve as witnesses to legal acts

1877 C.E.

Source: Judith Jeffrey Howard, “The Civil Code of 1865 and the Origins of the Feminist Movement in Italy”, in The Italian Immigrant Woman in North America, eds. Betty Boyd Caroli, Robert F. Harney and Lydio F. Thomasi (Toronto: The Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1977)

Separation on the grounds of cruelty*

1878 C.E.

In GB: Women can secure a separation on the grounds of cruelty, claim custody of their children and demand spousal and child support. Abused wives granted separation orders


Universities open to women in Serbia*

1888 C.E.

Source: Women and achievement in nineteenth-century Europe by Linda L. Clark

Spanish women allowed to have degrees from college*

1888 C.E.

(Universities fully open to women in 1910)

Source: Women and achievement in nineteenth-century Europe by Linda L. Clark

Greece: Universities open to women*

1890 C.E.

Source: Women and achievement in nineteenth-century Europe by Linda L. Clark

Germany: Women are allowed to attend university lectures

1891 C.E.

which makes it possible for individual professors to accept female students if they wish

Source: Bildung and gender in nineteenth-century bourgeois Germany: electronic resource : a cultural studies analysis of texts by women writers, by Cauleen Suzanne Gary, University of Maryland, College Park. Germanic Language and Literature

First Portugal medical university for women*

1891 C.E.

Source: Robin Morgan: Sisterhood is global: the international women's movement anthology

Married Women's Property Act*

1893 C.E.

significantly altered English law regarding the property rights granted to married women. It completed the Married Women's Property Act 1882 by granting married women the same property rights equal to unmarried women.


Poland: Kraków University open to women

1894 C.E.

Source: Zapolska's women: three plays : Malka Szwarcenkopf, The man and Miss Maliczewska, by Gabriela Zapolska, Teresa Murjas

First Russian Medical University*

1895 C.E.

opens the profession of physician for women

Source: The Feminists: Women's Emancipation Movements in Europe, America and Australasia, 1840–1920) Helsingborg: LiberFörlag Stockholm.

Women's Social and Political Union*

1903 C.E.

The right to vote was granted to some UK women*

1918 C.E.

Married love was published by Marie Stopes*

1918 C.E.

Marie Stopes, who believed in equality in marriage and the importance of women's sexual desire, published Married Love, a sex manual that, according to a survey of American academics in 1935, was one of the 25 most influential books of the previous 50 years, ahead of Relativity by Albert Einstein and The Interpretation of Dreams by Sigmund Freud.

Social equality with men*

1928 C.E.

No pay gap in Italy*

2011 C.E.

Laws Against Women

Dolly Todd Madison's struggle

1768 C.E. - 1849 C.E.

had to fight her deceased spouse's heirs for control of his estate

The sale of a wife is accepted in society, but not legal

1800 C.E. - 1900 C.E.

Throughout the 1800s there was barely a year without a newspaper report of a court case involving the sale of a wife.

West Lutton 1801; Wrentham 1802; Sheffield 1802; Ireland 1806; Hull 1810; Leominster 1818; Selby 1827; Honiton 1828; Bridlington 1828; Liverpool 1829; Banbury 1831; London 1832; Lancaster 1832; Bath 1833; Portsmouth 1833; West Riding 1837; Bardford 1838; Bridlington 1838; Witney 1839; Bradford 1839; Wisbech 1840; Leeds 1844; Stockport 1851; Bodmin 1853; Bury 1854; Thirsk 1855; Devonport 1856; Stonehouse 1856; Bradford 1858; Dudley 1859; Selby 1862; Newland 1862; Merthyr Tydfil 1863; Armagh 1864; Liverpool 1864; Chester 1864; Wolverhampton 1865; Hull 1868; Blackburn 1868; Bristol 1871, and so on ...
Prices ranged from a shilling to £150. Punishments included a month's hard labour, a £5 fine.


The Hull Packet

1853 C.E.

Stated that wife-beating was 'being accepted as the habit of the nation'. The phrase 'a stick not thicker than his thumb' was often bandied about.


Law of God

1856 C.E.

Wife beating is the 'law of God'. Liverpool Mercury


Wage disparity 16% below men

2011 C.E.

women's gross hourly earnings were on average 16 % below those of men in in the European Union


First Wave of Feminism

1848 C.E.

The first wave of feminism took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, emerging out of an environment of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics. 300 men and women rallied to the cause of equality for women


Second Feminist Movement Wave

1960 C.E. - 1990 C.E.

This wave unfolded in the context of the anti-war and civil rights movements and the growing self-consciousness of a variety of minority groups around the world. The New Left was on the rise, and the voice of the second wave was increasingly radical. In this phase, sexuality and reproductive rights were dominant issues, and much of the movement's energy was focused on passing the Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution guaranteeing social equality regardless of sex.

based on a fusion of neo-Marxism and psycho-analytical theory, and began to associate the subjugation of women with broader critiques of patriarchy, capitalism, normative heterosexuality, and the woman's role as wife and mother.


Third wave of the Feminist movement

1995 C.E.

The third phase of feminism began in the mid-90's and is informed by post-colonial and post-modern thinking. In this phase many constructs have been destabilized, including the notions of "universal womanhood," body, gender, sexuality and hetreronormativity. An aspect of third phase feminism that mystifies the mothers of the earlier feminist movement is the readoption by young feminists of the very lip-stick, high-heals, and cleavage proudly exposed by low cut necklines that the first two phases of the movement identified with male oppression. Pinkfloor expressed this new position when she said; "It's possible to have a push-up bra and a brain at the same time."

*Non- Judeo-Christian Goddesses and Religion


1600 B.C.E - 2013 C.E.

Source: Louth, Andrew., The Origins of the Christian Mystical Tradition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007

W.F. Cobb. Mysticism and the Creed. BiblioBazaar, 2009.


1000 B.C.E. - 2013 C.E.


200 B.C.E. - 750 C.E.

750 C.E. Was the last knows mention of the Druids until the late 18th century

Source: Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus project.

Cults dedicated to traditional goddesses started to form


"In 324 Byzantium had a number of operative cults to traditional gods and goddesses tied to its very foundation eight hundred years before. Rhea, called "the mother of the gods" by Zosimus, had a well-ensconced cult in Byzantium from its very foundation. [...] Devotion to Hecate was especially favored by the Byzantines [...] Constantine would also have found Artemis-Selene and Aphrodite along with the banished Apollo Zeuxippus on the Acropolis in the old Greek section of the city. Other gods mentioned in the sources are Athena, Hera, Zeus, Hermes, and Demeter and Kore. Even evidence of Isis and Serapis appears from the Roman era on coins during the reign of Caracalla and from inscriptions."

Source: Vasiliki Limberis, Divine Heiress, Routledge, 1994, p16

*Cathars Masacre

1244 C.E.

16th March 1244

The Vatican and the northern French nobility burnt the 225 perfecti (Cathar Priests) on the slopes of Montségur

*Intimate Life

Includes Sex, Marriage, Prostitution, Midwives, Homosexuality, Contraception


1000 C.E. - 1500 C.E.

Created the notion of Courtly Love. Heavily influenced poetry.
Southern France, Northern Italy, Norther Spain

only love freely given
unrequited love
adulterous love

Troubadours performing before the German Emperor
Heavily influenced women of the court to desire courtly love.

*Passionibus Mulierum Curandorum

1000 C.E.

(The Diseases of Women), also known as Trotula Major.

Salerno, Southern Italy

Trotula authored the book, one of the most famous female doctors of her time. Tried to shed light on female health, an area that was lacking in knowledge and understanding.

Suggested men were responsible for infertility and suggested herbs to ease the pain of child birth (something the church believed was a just punishment for the sin of Eve)


Quote from St. Bernard

1100 C.E.

'To be always with a woman and not have intercourse is more difficult than to raise the dead.'
--St. Bernard of Clairvaux, persecutor of the Cathars and venerator of the Virgin Mary, c1100 AD

*Abelard and Heloise

1132 C.E.

Lovers => pregnant with son => secret marriage => castration => holy life

Love story in Paris that illustrated courtly love, love freely given

Source: BBC Medieval Mind-Sex

Pornographic Stories Written by and for Monks

1200 C.E.

Found in English monastery.

BBC Medieval Mind Sex

*Confession once a year Required

1215 C.E.

This is just the start

Pope Innocent III

Made it mandatory for all Christians to attend confession once a year.

helped clergy weed out depravity.

Confessor Manuals

*Roman de la Rose

1230 C.E.

written by Guillaume de Lorris in France

An example of courtly love literature

*Compelled Confessions by Torture

1252 C.E.

compelling confessions by torture was not officially sanctioned until 1252, when Pope Innocent IV


*Sodomy Punishable by Death

1288 C.E.

Bologna, Italy

Source: BBC Medieval Mind - Sex

*Inspection of Philippa of Hanualt


Philippa of Hainault, or, Philippe de Hainaut was the Queen consort of King Edward III of England. Edward, Duke of Guyenne, her future husband, promised in 1326 to marry her within the following two years.

Source: BBC Medieval Minds-Sex

Inspected by a Bishop sent by Edward II. She was treated like property

*Example of Cathar technique to avoid pregnancy

1320 C.E.

Cathar priest reveals technique during inquisition of wearing an herb around your neck when you know a woman "carnally"

(what herb is was is unknown)
Source: A History of Europe Norman Davies pg 183

*Church Courts

1338 C.E.

Is just one example of the Diocese of Lincoln

Fornication results in beatings

Court records show exact penance for each crime.

Source: BBC Medieval Mind-Sex

*The Book of Women's Love

1350 C.E.

"The Book of Women's Love is a possibly late thirteenth-century anonymous Hebrew compilation of practices and recipes for the care and preservation of the health and beauty of the human body, particularly the female body. Its three sections treat magic (especially love magic); sexuality (recipes to assist coitus and to copulate well); and a combination of cosmetics (depilation, epilation; bleaching of hair, facial hair, and teeth; teeth maintenance and oral hygiene; sweat control; diminishing large breasts), gynecology, and obstetrics (mainly recipes arranged from head to toe concerning conditions and diseases of the female reproductive organs, conception, pregnancy, and menstruation)."

I Modi


Rome is the birthplace of modern pornography; the history begins amongst the print culture of the Italian Renaissance. In 1524, Marcantonio Raimondi published sixteen sexually explicit engravings that were designed by Giulio Romano and collectively titled the I Modi. The I Modi visually depicted figures from Greco-Roman mythology to Classical antiquity, enjoying the pleasures of copulation. In response to this scandal, Pope Clement VIII placed Raimondi in prison, where he remained for almost a year, until a consortium including Pietro Aretino (the founder of modern pornography) negotiated his release. (Lawner, 1988).

Sonetti lussuriosi


Pietro Aretino (1492-1556), the Italian author, polemicist and satirist, was a product of Renaissance humanism (Symonds, 1881). He wrote two pornographic masterpieces, the Sonetti lussuriosi (1527) and the Ragionamenti (1534-36) which were circulated amongst the aristocracy. The Sonetti lussuriosi or Aretino’s Postures as it came to be known, combined Aretino’s sexually explicit sonnets with the engravings of Romano from the I Modi. The Ragionamenti was an extension of Aretino’s Postures; it documented a dialogue between prostitutes and became the prototype for pornographic prose in the seventeenth century (Hunt, 1993). Aretino’s work was pornographic, voyeuristic, controversial, heretical, and politically incorrect. “Nowhere in European literature prior to Pietro Aretino … do we encounter the combination of explicit sexual detail and evident intention to arouse that became, three hundred years later, the hallmark of the pornographic” (Kendrick, 1996, p. 58).


1534 - 1536

"Discovery" of the Clitoris


Realdo Colombo wrote of discovering the clitoris "the seat of women's delight," and he called it "so pretty and useful a thing" in his De re anatomica"

From: Lisa Jean Moore
"Polishing the pearl" Discoveries of the clitoris"

French weaken semen with brandy

1600 - 1700

"During the 17th
century, the French used the method
of wetting a sponge with brandy to weaken the
sperm (Keown, 1977)."

Microcosmographia: A Description of the Body of Man


Blue = Literature

By Helkiah Crooke Cambridge

Book of anatomy that challenges the "one-sex" model and the ancient physician Galen.

"The one-sex model, popularly associated with the ancient physician Galen, held that the female body was an inferior version of the male physique: The vulva, for instance, was n inside-out version of the penis. Crooke used evidence from recent anatomical studies to refute this idea. "

Orlando Timeline

Evidence of Condom use in England


"The oldest condoms were found in the foundations
of Dudley Castle in England. They were made of
animal gut and dated back to 1640 (Parisot, 1985).
They were probably used to reduce the risk of
contracting sexually transmitted infections during the
war between the forces of Oliver Cromwell and
soldiers loyal to King Charles I"

L'Ecole des filles


"A notable imitation of the Ragionamenti was the French L’Ecole des filles (1655). Anonymously written, the book is a dialogue between two prostitutes; the inexperienced but eager Fanchon and the accomplished Susanne (L'Ecole des filles, 2001). L’Ecole des filles marked the beginning of the French pornographic tradition."

Onania; or The Heinous Sin of Self-Pollution

1710 - 1723

"A treatise against masturbation which mingles scare tactics with moral admonition; the reprints kept coming for decades."
Orlando Timeline

Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure

1748 - 1749

The breakthrough work for eighteenth century pornography was Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure (also known as Fanny Hill) by John Cleland. Initially published from 1748 to 1749, it was the first pornographic novel and the first work of English pornography to be written in prose (Foxon, 1965). Deemed obscene in 1750, Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure would remain ‘underground’ for over two centuries until 1966 in the United States and 1970 in Britain (Kendrick, 1996). The plot summary is that a young orphan girl named Fanny Hill moves to London at the age of fifteen and falls into prostitution. She loses her virginity to a nobleman named Charles whereby they fall in love and Fanny becomes pregnant. At the height of their love, Charles is kidnapped away by his father, which leads Fanny back to prostitution and a diverse range of sexual exploits. In the end, Fanny inherits a small fortune from a rich benefactor, she stumbles upon Charles whereby all is forgiven, Charles proposes to Fanny and they marry (Cleland, 1985).

French Political Porn

1774 - 1792

The French Revolution marked a major turning point in the history of modern pornography; it marked the rise and fall of political pornography as a genre. French political pornography had increased steadily from 1774 to 1788, it then spiked at the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789. There were one hundred and twelve pornographic novels published in 1789, compared to forty in 1792 and fifteen in 1794 (Wagner, 1991). Prior to the Revolution, pornography had been the domain of the upper class. With the introduction of the pornographic pamphlet and the freeing of the presses in 1789, pornography was democratized. Pamphlets ranging from eight to sixty pages were much cheaper than novels and were marketed aggressively across France; to a broad and burgeoning readership. By 1792, antiroyalist engravings could be found in most Parisian shop windows; over half the displayed work was pornographic (Boyer, 1792). The pornography was an attack against the authority of the Church State. Nuns, monks, priests, aristocrats, and royalty were all ridiculed; depictions of impotency, venereal disease, and sexual debauchery were the norm (Wagner, 1988). Queen Marie Antoinette was the most popular target in terms of titles written and pamphlets sold. Titles ranging from Le Godmiché royal (The Royal Dildo) to L’Autrichienne en goguettes (The Brothel of the Queen), depicted the Queen engaging in complicated orgies with priests, men and women, her son, and even animals (Clark, 2008). Such pornography undermined the legitimacy of the ancien régime as both a social and political system. By accusing Marie Antoinette of incest, the revolutionaries portrayed the royal blood as poisoned and unnatural, by desacralizing the royal body, they paved the way to Marie Antoinette’s execution (Thomas, 1989). The pornography begged the question; if King Louis XVI could not control Marie Antoinette, “or even be sure he was the father of his children, including the heir to the throne, then what was his claim on his subjects’ obedience or the future of the dynasty’s claim to the throne itself?” (Hunt, 1993, p. 306).
Political pornography played a major role in the French Revolution and the demise of Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI. After the Reign of Terror and with the exception of Sade, pornography was removed from politics in the Western world. Pornography’s future lay not in politics but in the depiction of sexual pleasure for pleasure’s sake.

120 Days of Sodom


Donatien-Alphonse-François, Comte de Sade (1740-1814) was a French nobleman and a controversial author. He is popularly referred to as the Marquis de Sade and it is from his name, that the term sadism originates (Arcand, 1993). Sade is the intellectual heir of violent pornography; his writings were extreme and an affront to conventional morality. His work incorporated many sadistic aspects from rape to torture and beyond. His most famous works include: The 120 Days of Sodom (1785) Justine (1791) and Juliette (1797). Beyond sadism, Sade’s work was philosophical, political, and opposed to religion. The republican police and later the Napoleonic police, spent more time tracking down copies of Justine and Juliette, than all other works of pornography combined. Every government, ancien regime, republican, and Napoleonic condemned Sade (Hunt, 1993).

Democratization of Porn in France


There were one hundred and twelve pornographic novels published in 1789, compared to forty in 1792 and fifteen in 1794 (Wagner, 1991). Prior to the Revolution, pornography had been the domain of the upper class.With the introduction of the pornographic pamphlet and the freeing of the presses in 1789, pornography was democratized.



by French Author Donatien-Alphonse-François, Comte de Sade

See 120 Days of Sodom



writen by French Authos Donatien-Alphonse-François, Comte de Sade See 120 Days odf Sodomy

Norwegian Washable Knitted Pads

1800 - 1900

Menstrual Odor Sign of Fertility

1800 - 1900

"in 18th century France, menses was considered to be 'impregnated with subtle vapors transmitted by the essence of life.' These were particularly seducing, as a woman was 'dispersing seductive effluvia' and 'making an appeal for fertilization.' Thus, societies have celebrated the seductive aroma of menstruation, rather than stifled [it]."
Alain Corbin

First attempt at cervical caps


"In 1838, German gynecologist Friedrich Wilde
created rubber “pessaries” for individual patients
with custom-made molds. Wilde’s pessaries
resembled today's cervical caps."

Nude Photography Boom in Paris


The Parisian output of nude photographs was prolific, in 1852, forty percent of the photographs registered for sale in Paris, were nudes (McCauley, 1994).

"Conversion Hysteria" Freud

1856 - 1939

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was one of the first clinicians to use the term "conversion hysteria" and proposed the mechanism of psychological trauma "converting" into a somatic symptom.[2] Freud's book collection reflects his interest in hysteria. A review of Freud's personal library of 3725 books revealed 125 French medical books published before 1900. Of these, the largest number is devoted to hysteria and hypnotism.[5] Freud clearly distinguished between symptoms caused by malingering (conscious) and conversion hysteria (unconscious).[6]

Hysteria Tied to Problem with Cerebral Cortex

1860 - 1899

in the late 1800s, French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot proposed that hysteria represented dysfunction of the cerebral cortex.

British Medical Association lists 123 kinds of pessaries


"By 1864, the British medical association was able to
list 123 kinds of pessaries being used throughout the
empire (Asbell, 1995)."

First Battery Operated Vibrator


" In 1880 the first battery-operated vibrator was designed by British physician Joseph Mortimer Granville and manufactured by the Weiss Company."

Cocoa Butter used as a contraceptive

1885 - 1960

Cocoa butter suppositories were sold in London from
1885 to 1960 (Chesler, 1992).

Le Coucher De La Marie


French film titled Le Coucher De La Marie (1896) was the first pornographic film

Photo Bits

1898 - 1926

English pornographic magazine

"One of the early magazines was an English title by the name of Photo Bits; it portrayed burlesque actresses in natural settings with explicit articles accompanying the photographs (Gabor, 1984)."

Distinction between Clitoral and Vaginal Orgasm


Sigmund Freud published an article making the distinction.

The vaginal orgasm was considered more "mature", while the clitoral orgasm was considered "immature". Eventually a woman would be "properly socialized" and could experience the "mature" vaginal orgasm.

Lisa Jean Moore: Polishing the Pearl

"White Cross Electric Vibrator"


Model 25, Lindstrom Smith Co.

Soviet Union Legalizes Abortion


Abortion associated with Marxism because the Soviet Union was the first European nation to legalize abortion

"A History of Their Own" (pg. 210)

Stalin Bans Abortion


"A History of their Own"
pg. 210

Medical Diagnosis for Hysteria Officially Ends


(Credit of Hysteria the movie)

First Edition of Playboy


"In December of 1953, Hugh Hefner published the first edition of Playboy Magazine in the United States; a nude Marilyn Monroe was the first Playboy centerfold. Whilst publishing nudes was not original, Hefner’s achievement was to turn Playboy into the liberal voice of a masculinized middle class and to marshal advertisers behind his “Playboy Philosophy, a … justification of a postwar good life that, he said, included sex as recreation” (Slade, 2000, p. 60). Whilst Playboy was controversial, it never showed photographs of pubic hair or genitals in the early days. Hefner managed to keep the censors at bay by combining high quality journalism with relatively ‘respectable’ photography (Watts, 2009)."

Sexual Behavior in the Human Female Published


Alfred Kinsey comprised 5,940 interviews with women. From these interviews they defined the clitoris as the "locus of female sexual sensation and orgasm." This evidence wasn't compelling enough, it got looked over in the 1950s-1970s when the function of the clitoris was ignored in anatomical textbooks.

Lisa Jean Moore: Polishing the Pearl

First Edition of Penthouse


"In 1965, Bob Guccione published the first edition of Penthouse magazine in the United Kingdom, the first American edition was launched in 1969. More risqué than Playboy, Penthouse photographs contained pubic hair. Penthouse was popular with persons who wanted more explicit photographs and written content than Playboy."

English women try vitamin C for contraception

1970 - 1980

"In the 1970s, some
women in England inserted vitamin C tablets into their
vaginas as contraceptive suppositories ¾ but some
experienced severe burning of the cervix (Wilson,

Deep Throat


First MRIs of the Clitoris


MRIs had been used since the 1970s on penises.

M.U.M. Museum of Menstrations Opens


A German man opens MUM in his home in Baltimore.

It's website is still accessible and contains article after article about the lost history of menstruation

Netherlands Legalizes Same Sex Marriage


They are the first country to do so.

"In December 2000, the Netherlands became the first country to legalize same-sex marriage when the Dutch parliament passed by a three-to-one margin its landmark bill allowing the practice. The legislation gave same-sex couples the right to marry, divorce and adopt children. The legislation altered a single sentence in the existing civil marriage statute, which now reads, "A marriage can be contracted by two people of different or the same sex.""

As of 2009

Belgium Legalizes Same Sex Marriage


Beginning in 1998, the Belgian parliament offered limited rights to same-sex couples through registered partnerships. Same-sex couples could register with a city clerk and formally assume joint responsibility for a household. Five years later, in January 2003, the Belgian parliament legalized same-sex marriage, giving gay and lesbian couples the same tax and inheritance rights as heterosexual couples.

Support for the law came from both the Flemish-speaking North and the French-speaking South, and the law generated surprisingly little controversy across the country. The long-dominant Christian Democratic Party, traditionally allied with the Catholic Church, was out of power when the parliament passed the measure.

The 2003 law allowed the marriages of Belgian same-sex couples and recognized as married those from other countries where same-sex marriage was legal. Those provisions were broadened in 2004 to allow any same-sex couple to marry as long as one member of the couple had lived in Belgium for at least three months. In 2006, the parliament also granted same-sex partners the right to adopt children.

About 3,500 same-sex couples had married in Belgium as of 2006.

The Royal College of Midwives

2004 - 2013

"Launched in 2004, the Royal College of Midwives Alliance Programme is an innovative venture formed to promote and enhance the work of the College in its commitment to midwifery professionals. The Alliance aims to actively support midwifery and promote the interests of the RCM, midwives and mothers. Much activity to promote the Alliance Programme has surrounded a series of events, notably the RCM Annual Conference, International Day of the Midwife and the RCM Annual Midwifery Awards."

Spain Legalizes Same Sex Marriage


A closely divided Spanish parliament legalized same-sex marriage in 2005, guaranteeing identical rights to all married couples regardless of sexual orientation. The new measure added brief new language to the existing marriage statute, which now reads, "Marriage will have the same requirements and results when the two people entering into the contract are of the same sex or of different sexes."

Vatican officials as well as the Catholic Spanish Bishops Conference strongly criticized the law, and large crowds demonstrated in Madrid for and against the measure. After the law went into effect, the country's constitutional court rejected challenges from two municipal court judges who had refused marriage licenses to same-sex couples. The high court ruled that the lower court judges lacked legal standing to bring the suits.

According to a survey by Instituto Opina, a private Spanish polling organization, approximately 62% of the public favored the legislation on the day before it was passed. Nine months later, about the same number (61%) supported the measure.

More than 10,000 same-sex couples had married in Spain by the end of 2008. The first same-sex divorce was granted in June 2006.


2006 - 2013

The European Commission granted a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union for Intrinsa on 28 July 2006.

Intrinsa was funded by Proctor and Gambel as a cure for Female Sexual Disfunction (FSD). It's a testosterone patch that provides a low dose of testosterone to increase a woman's labedo. It's effectiveness and extent to which the side affects can harm a woman is still up for debate.

Norway Legalizes Same Sex Marriage


As of January 2009, gay couples in Norway can legally marry, adopt children and undergo artificial insemination. The new law replaces a 1993 law permitting civil unions. The 2009 law was passed despite resistance from members of the Christian Democratic Party and the Progress Party, as well as a public controversy over state funding for fertility treatments for lesbian couples.

According to a poll conducted by a Norwegian newspaper two months prior to the enactment of the new law, a majority of the public (58%) said they supported the proposed law to legalize gay marriage; only 31% of the public opposed it. The largest religious group in the country, the Lutheran-affiliated Church of Norway, was split over the issue. Following the passage of the new law, the church's leaders voted to prohibit its pastors from conducting same-sex weddings.

Sweden Legalizes Same Sex Marriage


In April 2009, the Swedish parliament voted by an overwhelming majority to legalize same-sex marriage. Gay couples in Sweden had been allowed to register for civil unions since 1995.

The new law allows gays and lesbians to marry in religious or civil ceremonies, but it does not require clergy to officiate at such ceremonies. The Lutheran-affiliated Church of Sweden, to which roughly three-quarters of all Swedes belong, has offered blessings for same-sex partnerships since January 2007. In October 2009, the church will decide whether to bless same-sex marriages.

There is substantial support in Sweden for same-sex marriage. In January 2008, 71% of Swedes said they would support gay couples' right to marry, according to a poll conducted by the SIFO Institute. Similarly, a January 2009 poll conducted by Sveriges Television found that 68% of pastors in the Lutheran Church of Sweden said they would officiate at gay marriages in their church.

1st Complete 3D Sonograph of a stimulated Clitoris


" it wasn’t until as recent as 2009, French researchers Dr. Odile Buisson and Dr. Pierre Foldès gave the medical world it’s first complete 3-D sonography of the stimulated clitoris. "

Portugal Legalizes Same Sex Marriage


"In June 2010, Portugal became the eighth country to legalize same-sex marriage. Its parliament had passed the measure legalizing gay marriage earlier in 2010. But following its passage, Portugal’s president, Anibal Cavaco Silva, asked the Constitutional Court to review the measure. In April 2010, the Constitutional Court declared the law to be constitutionally valid. It was signed by Silva in May of that year and took effect one month later. Portugal’s gay marriage law does not give married same-sex couples the right to adopt children."

Iceland Legalizes Same Sex Marriage


A measure legalizing same-sex marriage passed the Icelandic legislature in June 2010. Public opinion polls prior to the vote indicated broad support for the measure, and no members of the country’s legislature voted against it. Iceland had allowed same-sex couples to register as domestic partners since 1996. A decade later, the parliament passed a measure allowing gay couples to adopt children.

After the new law took effect in late June 2010, the country’s prime minister, Johanna Sigurdardottir, wed her longtime partner, Jonina Leosdottir, becoming one of the first people to marry under the statute.

Ternovsky v. Hungary


"Hungarian mother Anna Ternovszky, pregnant with her second child in 2010, took her country to the European Court of Human Rights because she was compromised in her choice to give birth at home. Hungarian law was ambiguous concerning home birth, and her midwife Dr. Ágnes Geréb was facing legal proceedings for supporting out-of-hospital births.Anna Ternovszky won the case against the state of Hungary. According to the powerful holding of the Court, the legal authority and meaningful choice in childbirth is a human rights issue. The unprecedented Ternovszky judgement situates birthing women as the ultimate decision-makers regarding the circumstances in which they bring forth their babies."

Anna Ternovszky giving birth to her first child with Agnes Magreb

Denmark Legalizes Same Sex Marriage


In June 2012, Denmark’s legislature passed a bill legalizing gay marriage. The measure was enacted into law a few days later when Queen Margrethe II gave her royal assent to the bill.

In 1989, Denmark became the first country to allow same-sex couples to register as domestic partners. And in 2010, the country enacted a law allowing gay couples in registered partnerships the right to adopt children.

With the legalization of gay marriage, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark (which is the state church), is required to allow same-sex couples to marry in churches. However, no member of the church’s clergy is required to perform the wedding of a gay or lesbian couple. In addition, the law leaves it up to other religious groups to determine whether or not to allow same-sex weddings in its churches.

France Legalizes Same Sex Marriage


On April 23, the French National Assembly passed a bill that would legalize same-sex marriage, making France the 14th country to grant gays and lesbians the right to wed. The measure, which was approved by the Senate on April 12, now goes to President François Hollande, who has vowed to sign it. Barring a surprise, same-sex marriages could be performed in France as early as June.

In May 2012, Hollande was elected and his Socialist Party won majorities in both houses of France’s legislature. True to their campaign promises, Hollande and the Socialists have pushed through a bill that not only legalizes same-sex marriage but also gives gay and lesbian couples the right to adopt children—a provision that has drawn especially strong criticism from French Catholic leaders.

While recent polls show that nearly two-thirds of French adults support legalizing same-sex marriage, opposition to the change has been intense. Since the beginning of 2013, several anti-gay marriage protests with occasionally volatile crowds numbering in the hundreds of thousands have taken place in Paris and elsewhere. Indeed, concerns about the possibility of violent protests surrounding the final vote prompted French authorities to deploy riot police outside the National Assembly.

As of 2013 these are the countries with sam sex marriage:

The following is a list of nations that allow same-sex marriage, either nationwide or in certain jurisdictions.

Countries That Allow Gay Marriage

Argentina (2010) France (2013) Norway (2009) Spain (2005)

Belgium (2003) Iceland (2010) Portugal (2010) Sweden (2009)

Canada (2005) The Netherlands (2000) South Africa (2006) Uruguay (2013)

Denmark (2012) New Zealand (2013)

Countries Where Gay Marriage is Legal in Some Jurisdictions

Brazil (2011) Mexico (2009) United States (2003)

Of the 15 countries that allow same sex marriage in all jurisdictions 10 are European. (66.67%)



Personal Conclusions on Intimate Life:

Women have been degraded and attacked in every aspect of their intimate life. They have been subject to sexual exploitation, unhealthy and painful birthing practices, and have also been considered inferior in their social roles as mother and wife. Women's pleasure is something that has never been considered a given in intercourse and today women still fight for reciprocity in their sexual relationships.

However, we progressed in our understanding of the female body, sexuality and societal roles. However, today a women are preyed on by the market. Their natural beauty has been deemed not enough and the market is happy to give them products to make them "beautiful". Women are also told they have problems like Female Sexual Dysfunction and given hormones they don't need. Contraception and birth control has largely progressed along side abortion rights. Pro-life and pro-choice

New Zealand Legalizes Same Sex Marriage


"On April 17, the New Zealand Parliament gave final approval to a measure that legalizes same-sex marriage, making the Pacific island nation the 13th country in the world and the first in the Asia-Pacific region to allow gays and lesbians to wed. The measure won approval by a 77-44 margin in the country’s unicameral legislature, including support from Prime Minister John Key. The bill still must be signed by the country’s governor-general (a process known as royal assent), but that step is considered a formality. The bill is expected to take effect in August 2013.

In 2005, New Zealand enacted legislation allowing same-sex couples to enter into civil unions. The 2013 measure not only legalizes same-sex marriage but also allows for gay and lesbian couples to adopt children."

Clitoris Awareness Week

05/05/2013 - 05/12/2013

1st ever Clitoris awareness week. Put on by Clitoraid, an organization dedicated to reconstructing the clitoris of women who suffered female genital mutilation.


The perception of a nunnery becomes more sacrilege than holy

1600 C.E.

Perception of nuns start to change

1900 C.E.


Will add to the layer of intimate life, just making it's own layer for the purpose to organization at the early phase of the project.

"Type A"


Hamilton Beach

Source for all vibrator on this timeline:

"Barker Universal"


James Barker, Inc., circa

"Shelton Deluxe-Wayne Vibrator"


Shelton Electric Co.

"White Cross Electric Vibrator"


Brass Version, Lindstrom Smith Co.

"Chic Electric Vibrator"


Morris Struhl, Inc.,

"Sure Vibrator"


"Star Rite Electric Vibrator"


Fitzgerald Manufacturing Co.

"Type K"


Hamilton Beach

"Polar Cub Type G"


"Polar Cub Type G", A.C. Gilbert Co.

"Super Douglas Vibrator"


"Model V40"


Allover Manufacturing Co.

"Magnetic Massage"


Son-Chief Electronics, Inc.

"Regal Vibrator"


Model 4400, Herold Manufacturing Co., circa 193

"Elizabeth Arden Electric Patter"




Beauty Applicance Corp.

"Hollywood Vita Roll"


Model A-125, S&D Engineering Co.



A.C. Gilbert Co., circa 1933

"Andis Vibrator"


Andis Clipper Co., Model AV, circa 1934

"Kwik Way"


Kwikway Co., circa 1936

"The Electric Coronet Beauty Patter"


Coronet, circa 1940

"Therm Massage"


Silbert & Co., circa 1940

"Therm Massage"


Silbert & Co., circa 1940

"The Electric Coronet Beauty Patter"


Coronet, circa 1940



Beauty Appliance Corp., circa 1944

"Deluxe Scientific Massage Modality"


Model M-1, John Oster Manufacturing, circa 1948

"Chic Glorifier"


, Morris Struhl, Inc., circa 1950

"Handy Hannah Electric Vibrator"


Standard Products Corp., circa 1950

"Miracle Ball Grip Massager"


Miracle Electric Co., circa 1950



Model G1UV-7, General Electric, circa 1950

"Sears Massager"


Model 793.2201, Sears, Roebuck & Co., circa 1950

"Model E Home Vibrator"


Wahl Clipper Corp., circa 1955

"Niagara Cyclo Massage"


circa 1960

"Hollywood Vibra-Tone"


Fischer, circa 1960



"Norelco Massager"




Model F-10H, Teranishi Electric Works Ltd., circa 1970


Theodora's Reign

500 C.E. - 548 C.E.

A women's activist along with her Husband, Jusinian

Code of Justinian I

529 C.E. - 534 C.E.

a collection of fundamental works in law issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, in which women’s status and rights were clearly explained, yet were later altered during the succeeding rulings.


*Salic Law

533 - 566

King Chilperic allowed women to inherit Salic land provided they had no brothers.


Brothals and Pimping made Illigal

535 C.E

Source:Cesaretti, Paolo. Teodora. Ed. Mark Magowan Books. N.p.: Abrams, 2004. Print.

A Husband's endowment of his Future Wife on Their Betrothal

994 C.E.

"I cede, hand over, and transfer in perpetuaty to three, me beloved, to have to sell to give, or to lease out and do whatever you wish with them."

Source: Fordham University

This is a law that gave a husband the right to sell their wife as property.

Council of Westminster

1076 C.E.

A daughter had to be blessed by a priest in order to be sold as a concubine

Source: Fordham University

unmarried women could seal acts in their own names

1150 C.E. - 1350 C.E.

*Laws and Regulations

Manus wedding arrangement

509 BC - 200 CE

The form of marriage known as manus was the norm in the early Republic, but became less frequent thereafter. Under this early form of marriage, the bride passed into the "hand" (manus) of her husband; that is, she was transferred from the potestas of her father to that of her husband. Her dowry, any inheritance rights transferred through her marriage, and any property acquired by her after marriage belonged to him.

-Women in Roman Law and Society, First Midland Book Edition, 1991, 11

Law of the Twelve Tables

450 BC - 200 CE

The principle of successoral equality.

Source- A history of Women

Pax Romana

27 B.C. - 180 C.E.

Period of relative peace throughout the Mediterranean world.
Began during Augustus's rule and ended during Marcus Aurelius's rule.


Laws to Increase birth rate by Augustus. Pronatalist Laws

27 BCE - 14 CE
  • fertile women praised for having more children

The Great Roman Ladies; A History of Women in the West from Ancient Goddesses to Christian Saints

Lex Julia de Adulteriis

18 B.C.E. - 300 C.E

"Augustus declared adultery a public offense only in women. Consistent with the powers of the pater familias, the father of the adulteress was permitted to kill her if she had not been emancipated from his power...the husband was obliged to divorce his wife, and he or someone else was to bring her to trial..." (Pomeroy 159).

"Over the next three centuries, emperors reissued and strengthened these laws" (Becoming Visible 109).

Right of Three Children

9 B.C.E. - 534 C.E.

"[Augustus] offered women who bore three children recognition as legal persons in their own right---adults capable of controlling their own lives and property without a legal guardian. Freedwomen, who had been emancipated from slavery but not promoted into the full rights of freeborn women, could achieve the same status after bearing four children.” (Becoming Visible 109)

Premarital Sex

1 C.E. - 200 C.E.

acceptable for men but not for women. However, everyone was expected to eventually marry and have children.

Federal Tax on Prostitution

40 C.E.

Made prostitution an essential business for the Roman Empire.

Law Regarding Women Slaves of the Imperial Household

52 C.E

"...a decree of the Senate was passed in A.D. 52 that discouraged freeborn and freedwomen from marrying slaves by reducing such a wife to the status of slave or freedowman of her husband's master...This regulation was aimed slaves of the imperial household" (Pomeroy 196)

Child raising differs for the elite

100 CE - 200 CE

most elite women avoided breast-feeding their infants themselves and it was common practice to hire wet-nurses


*Classical antiquity

800 B.C.E. - 600 C.E.

It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe and the Middle East

The culture of the ancient Greeks thrived throughout classical antiquity in art, philosophy, society, and educational ideals.

Parthenon is built

432 B.C.E.


330 C.E. - 1453 C.E.

Byzantine art is almost entirely concerned with religious expression and carefully controlled church theology into artistic terms.

*Medieval Period

600 C.E. - 1600 C.E.

Medieval art was produced in many media such as sculpture, illuminated manuscripts, stained glass, metalwork and mosaics.

*The oldest Byzantine Icon of Mary

600 C.E.

at Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai retains much of Greek realist style.


730 C.E. - 884 C.E.

the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious icons, symbols, or monuments. Usually for religious or political motives.

Any individual who challenges established dogma or conventions.

Iconoclasm was sometimes the result of a sectarian dispute between varying ideology of the same religion.

In Christianity, iconoclasm typically occurred between groups of people who believed in a literal interpretation of the Ten Commandments, which forbid the making and worshipping of "graven images or any likeness of anything".

Source: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art history

*Wilton Diptych

1400 C.E.

the virgin mary is shown in traditional blue.

"The older, classic and more representative color is dark blue," according to the Rev. Johann Roten, S.M, director of the Marian Library-International Marian Research Institute at the University of Dayton. "Mary's dark blue mantle, from about 500 A.D., is of Byzantine origin and is the color of an empress." Mary has traditionally been called "Queen of Heaven," as the Mother of God who was assumed into heaven upon her death.

It reflects calm and tranquility, and purity,d.dmQ&psig=AFQjCNFkLnEi96U5FklEbNunEuJZP5RMzg&ust=1365620664679860

*Ravensburger Schutzmantelmadonna

1480 C.E.

Virgin of Mercy.

Roman Empire

All events in the Roman Empire

Women spectators banned from Roman ampitheaters

22 B.C. - 19 C.E.

"...women were first banned from the arena in 22 B.C. by Augustus in a senatus consultum....was repeated and extended in 19 A.D. This S.C. specifically banned the daughters, granddaughters, and great-granddaughters of senators...this S.C. also mentions an earlier mandate of 11 A.D. that prohibited freeborn women under the age of twenty from entering the arena" (McCullough 198-199).


1 C.E.

A festivel for prostitutes, the goddess of flowers, Flor

started in 238 B.C. but continued to be an annual festival

Rome Invades Britain

43 C.E.

Claudius Invades Britain

43 C.E.

Queen Cartimandua surrenders King Caratacus to Emperor Claudius

43 C.E.

"Cartimandua was a queen of the Brigantes, the British nation that occupied most of Yorkshire, Lancashire and Cumbria."
-Who's Who in the Roman Empire

Julia Agrippina obtains title of Augusta

50 C.E.

Agrippina was ambitious to gain power for herself through her son and, with the help of Claudius' freedman Pallas, and of Burrus and Nero's tutor, Seneca, she obtained the title of Augusta.

Source: Who's Who in The Roman World, Routledge

Women Gladiators during Nero's Rule

54 C.E. - 68 C.E.

Female Gladiators in Imperial Rome: Literary Context and Historical Fact

Anna McCullough

Agrippina murders her husband Claudius I, Nero becomes Emperor

54 C.E

On 13 October 54 Claudius died, probably murdered by Agrippina, and Nero, aged sixteen, was escorted by Burrus, commander of the Guard, to the Praetorian camp. The Senate then voted him the powers he needed as emperor.

Who's Who in the Roman World, Routledge

Agrippina murdered by her son Nero

59 C.E.

As a result of her opposition to Nero’s affair with Poppaea Sabina, the Emperor decided to murder his mother. Inviting her to Baiae, he had her set forth on the Bay of Naples in a boat designed to sink, but she swam ashore. Eventually she was put to death on Nero’s orders at her country house.

Great Fire of Rome

64 C.E.

First Jewish wars against Rome

66 C.E. - 73 C.E.

which began when the Jews expelled the Romans from Jerusalem


Lupanare-First Brothel

72 C.E.

Mt. Vesuvius Erupts

79 C.E.

Destroys city of Pompeii

Women gladiators at opening of Colosseum

80 C.E

"[Historians] attest to female beast hunters under Titus at the games inaugurating the Flavian ampitheatre" (McCullough 199)

Rome Captures Dacia

105 C.E.

Hadrian's Wall

122 C.E.

In Britain

Sonarus OB/GYN of Rome dies

130 C.E.

Practiced in Rome. Authority on obstetrics, gynceology, and pediatrics. Wrote On Midwifery and the Diseases of Women, which was used up until the 18th century.

The Antonine Wall

142 C.E.

at Bearsedn, between Scotland and Britain

Plague of Smallpox

166 C.E.

could have also been anthrax, showed up repeatedly and is theorized as another cause of the fall of the empire

Buildings of Rome

Construction of Pont du Gard

20 C.E.

an aqueduct to bring water to the city of Nîmes

Building of Colosseum

70 C.E. - 82 C.E.

Roman Emperors

Use as a way to place events if we don't have the exact date.


31 B.C. - 14 C.E.

Source for all Roman Emperors: Europe: A History by Norman Davies


14 C.E. - 37 C.E.


37 C.E. - 41 C.E.

Claudius I

41 C.E. - 54 C.E.


54 C.E. - 68 C.E.

Galba, Otho, Vitellius

68 C.E. - 69 C.E.


69 C.E. - 79 C.E.


79 C.E. - 81 C.E.


81 C.E. - 96 C.E.


96 C.E. - 98 C.E.


98 C.E. - 117 C.E.


117 C.E. - 138 C.E.

Antonius Pius

138 C.E. - 161 C.E.

M. Aurelius

161 C.E. - 180 C.E.

Lucius Verus

161 C.E. - 190 C.E.


180 C.E. - 192 C.E.

Pertinax, Dedius, Julianus

193 C.E.

Septimius Severus

193 C.E. - 211 C.E.

Dynasties of the Roman Empire

Julio-Claudian Dynasty

31 B.C.E. - 68 C.E.

Flavian Dynasty

68 C.E. - 96 C.E.

The Good Emperors

96 C.E. - 180 C.E.


180 C.E. - 192 C.E.

Severan Dynasty

192 C.E. - 235 C.E.