Southeast Asia

Burma

Buddhist Presence

100 C.E. - 700 C.E.

Until the early 8th century, Burma was a strictly Buddhist nation

Kyaungdarit ascended the throne

388 C.E.

Kyaung Phyu begins his Rule

1010 C.E.

Establishes Buddhism

Anoraahta Tsau restores Ancient Power

1020 C.E.

Considered the greatest ruler in pre-modern Burma, Anoraahta Tsau establishes Buddhism and in doing so reaffirms the monarchy's power.

King Tarukpyemeng builds a Great Pagoda

1270 C.E.

In an attempt to reaffirm his power and place himself on a godly level, King Tarukpyemeng builds an enormous monuement.

Explosion of Burmese Population

1600

Britain Annexes Lower Burma

1852

Rubber Industry Boom

1876 - 1964

An early example of industry in the far east, Burma was a minor producer of rubber. From here, they entered a more global market once invaded by the English.

British Invasion of Upper Burma

1885

Indian Labor Migration

1900 - 1940

As a result of British Colonial rule in Southeast Asia, there was a huge migration to the malay peninsula to increase labor forces. Indians began to form a working minority in Burma.

Transition to Socialism

1962

Abandon Socialism

1988

Abandon Socialism

1988

Burma becomes Union of Myanmar

1989

The western world changes the name to Myanmar in order to give the country a fresh start, so to speak, but that raises controversy regarding whether or not we have that right. Burma is still widely used to signify the territory.

Private Gem Mining

1995

Foreign intervention and exploitation of resources

Indonesia

First Indian Buddhists arrive 1CE

1 CE - 200 CE

Buddhists bring two different sects with them > Hinayana and Mahayana.

Indian settlers continue to arrive in Indonesia

1 CE - 700 CE

Hindu religion is spread throughout the area as a result of Indian settlers' arrival.

Sriwijaya becomes maritime empire

701 CE - 1299 CE

Sriwijaya, maritime empire, gains control of western Java and part of the Malay Peninsula.

Indonesian civilization flourishes

701 CE - 800 CE

At this period, there is a Hindu kingdom in central Java called Saliandra and the great Buddhist Kingdom of Sriwijaya in south Samara as leading kingdoms.

Salienda established

750 CE - 850 CE

Famous Buddhist kingdom in Indonesian history is established, called Salienda.

Hindu Kingdom called Majapahit Empire founded

1292

Majapahit Empire is founded and rises to dominate most of Indonesia.

Islam gains place in Aceh

1300 - 1401

Islam is spread throughout Indonesia by Indian merchants and gains a place in Aceh in northern Sumatra and later throughout the rest of the area.

Majapahit Empire comes into power

1331 - 1364

The mightiest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia's ancient history is said to be the Majapahit Empire under reign of Hayam Wuruk.

Portuguese Arrive

1501 - 1600

Portuguese arrive in Indonesia and there is a huge demand in Europe for spices produced in Indonesia, like nutmeg, ginger, and cinnamon. The Portuguese seize Moluccas, which was the major source of spice production.

Spanish Arrive, Spread Christianity with Portuguese

1512

In 1512, the Spanish and Portuguese arrive and begin the spread of Christianity in Indonesia.

First Dutch Fleet from Holland

1595

In 1595, the first Dutch fleet from Holland arrives under Cornelis de Houtman.

Portuguese lose control to the Dutch

1601 - 1650

In early 17th century the Portuguese lost control to the Dutch.

Dutch Extend Power

1601 - 1700

The Dutch extend their power of Java and Moluccas, though this has little influence on the rest of Indonesia.

Dutch East India Company formed

1602

The Dutch East India Company is formed to better control trade with Indonesia.

All Dutch territories in Indonesia captured

1799 - 1811

The Dutch government takes over territories lost by Dutch East India Company. In 1806, the British and Dutch go to war and by 1811, British sailed to Batvia. Not long after all Dutch territories in Indonesia had been captured by the British.

Dutch East India Company Dissolves

1800

Dutch East India Company is weighed down by corruption, goes bankrupt, and finally dissolves in 1800.

Dutch extends control to other areas

1801 - 1900

British give territories back to Dutch

1816

Javanese War Begins

1825

Javanese War breaks out in central Java in 1825, led by Prince Disponegoro.

War Ends > Dutch Victory

1830

The Javanese War ends in 1830 with a Dutch Victory.

Dutch Introduce Kultuurstelsel

1830

In 1830, the Dutch introduce the Kultuurstelsel or cultural system, where Indonesian farmers were forced to put aside 20 percent of their land to grow crops for export, and were paid only a nominal sum by the Dutch government. Indonesians were forced to grow coffee, indigo, tea, and pepper. Their rice production was reduced.

Dutch switches to a free market system

1870

Dutch switch from Kultuurstelsel to a free market system. The Dutch government's monopoly on sugar and other products ends and private plantations are created. Indonesians are slaves on Dutch plantations.

Dutch begin to treat Indonesians more fairly

1901 - 1950

An ethical policy is introduced and schools are built, with money being spent on health care, sanitation, and irrigation for Indonesia. However, these changes had little actual effect on the lives of Indonesians. Some Indonesians became educated and familiar with Western concepts of liberalism and socialism. Nationalist movements toward independence begin stewing.

Japanese Invade Indonesia

1942 - 1945

The Japanese invade Indonesia and the last Dutch troops surrender on March 8, 1942. Indonesians first saw the Japanese as a liberating force but realized later that they were brutal and exploitative of their resources. They are present in the territory until 1945 when they surrender

Sukarno declares Indonesian independence

1945

On August 17, 1945, Sukarno declares Indonesian independence and becomes first president of the country with Hatta as the first vice president.

Dutch Reinstate Power Over Indonesia

1946 - 1949
  • Dutch Arrive Again
    In November of 1946, the Dutch arrive again. The Dutch and Indonesians sign the Linggajati agreement which specified that the republic would join a federal union with Holland in 1949. Holland recognized the republic in Java and Sumatra, but claimed the rest of Indonesia.

  • The Dutch attempt to re-conquer
    By December of 1948, the Dutch were looking to reclaim Indonesia, but Indonesians turned to guerrilla warfare and the Dutch were once again faced with strong condemnation from the US powers and could not win the war.

  • Dutch agree to recognize Indonesian independence
    On November 2, 1949 the Dutch finally agree to recognize Indonesian independence and withdraw their troops in December.

President Sukarno introduces new political system

1957

Though independent Indonesia was at first a parliamentary democracy, in February of 1957, President Sukarno introduces a new political system - guided democracy. The power or parliament was increased. His opponents formed a separate "parliament" called the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PRRC). The army remained loyal to Sukarno and he was able to stay in power.

Suharto ruled as dictator > healed economy

1966 - 1998

Suharto rules as a dictator from 1966 to 1998. Suharto held elections every five years but democracy was a sham. He brought stability and the economy healed. After 1973, Indonesia benefitted from the high price of oil. Agriculture became more productive and the economy more successful. However, most Indonesians remained poor.

Suharto Resigns and elections are held

1998 - 1999

Indonesia was hit by riots and Suharto resigned in May of 1998. Democracy was back and elections were held in 1999.

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyno elected president

2004

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyno is elected President in 2004 and by the beginning of the 21st century, the Indonesian economy was fully recovered. By 2007, it grew by 6% per year.

Vietnam

Dong Son Culture

2000 BC - 200 AD

The start of the Vietnamese nation.
Start of the Van Lang Kingdom - the first Kingdom of Vietnam.
Van Lang Kingdom had a professional administrative class assisting the rulers.

First Chinese Domination

111 BC - 39 CE

Chinese attempted to introduce Chinese literature, arts, language, and agricultural techniques to Vietnam. The Viet resisted until the domination ended with the Trung Sisters' revolt.

Trung Sisters' Revolt

39 AD - 42 AD

Famous Vietnamese revolt led by the Trung sisters, both widows of local aristocrats. The revolt was successful and the older sister, Trung, Trac, became ruler of an independent state for 3 years

Second Chinese Domination

43 AD - 544 AD

Ma Yuan created a Chinese style administration of three prefectures and fifty-six districts ruled by scholar-officials sent by the Han court.

Ly Dynasty

544 AD - 603 AD

Van Xuan as ruler under the Vietnamese Ly Dynasty.
Period of strong political resistance. Ly Bi became emperor in 543 and his leadership lasted 50 years after his death in 547.

Third Chinese Domination

602 AD - 938 AD

Two Chinese imperial dynasties:
602-618: Sui Dynasty under three districts in the Red River Delta.
618-905: Tang Dynasty

Ngo Dynasty

939 AD - 967 AD

Vietnam proclaimed independence from China. Many attempts by the Chinese to reestablish power in Vietnam.

Dinh Dynasty

968 AD - 980 AD

Dinh Bo Linh (a mandarin) created the first unified empire of Vietnam and renamed the country Dai Co Viet. Won first recognition of Vietnam as a state independent of China. Worried about outside invasions, he appointed military personnel to important positions.

Early Le Dynasty

980 AD - 1009 AD

Lê Long Đĩnh, the last of the three rulers of the Early Le Dynasty was immensely hated and treated the population very poorly. People of Vietnam plotted to install a new ruler, which marked the end of the Early Le Dynasty.

Later Ly Dynasty

1009 AD - 1225 AD

First of the great Vietnamese Dynasties. Established by Ly Thai To in the Red River Delta. The kingdom later became known as Dai Viet.
Local lords were replaced by an institution of training for civil Mandarin administrators as well as an academy of learning were established. Created a universal military service, which kept the Chinese from invading Champa for two centuries. Developed a system of dykes and canals to prevent summer flooding and winter drought, resulting in one of the most fertile rice-growing areas of the world. Economy thrived - became a strong force in Southeast Asia. Promoted the arts and literature.

Tran Dynasty

1225 AD - 1400 AD

Defeated Mongol armies of Kublai Kahn, which tried to reintegrate Vietnam back into the Chinese empire. Golden age for art, culture, science, and education.

Mongols Attack Vietnam First Time

1257

Wanted to gain control of the territory to add to their reign over most of Eurasia. Committed mass murder. Resulted in Vietnamese forces massacred Uriyankhadai's troops

Mongols Attack Vietnam Second Time

1284

Ends in Vietnamese victory

Ho Dynasty

1400 AD - 1407 AD

Ho Quy Ly - Emperor. Descendants of the Tran Dynasty were uneasy with the Ho Dynasty. Civil unrest allowed the Ming to conquer Dai Viet with the help of Tran Dynasty sympathizers. The Ho tried to regain China's goodwill, but they refused to offer it. Went to war with the Ming. Ming exploited Vietnam's natural resources and sent goods, including the written history of Vietnam until the Tran Dynasty, back to Beijing. Fueled the Viet Rebellion

Fourth Chinese Domination

1407 AD - 1427 AD

Ruled by the Ming dynasty. Instilled Chinese culture and language into the government and culture of Vietnam.

Later Le Dynasty

1428 AD - 1789 AD

Longest-ruling Dynasty of Vietnam.
Rebel leader, Le Loi, drives out Chinese from Annam and founds Le Dynasty.
Civil war over control of the government (power over 14-year-old Emperor). Split between North and South Vietnam.
European missionaries and merchants infiltrating Vietnamese court and politics.

Alexander de Rhodes Arrives in Indochina

1619

De Rhodes sent to Hanoi

1627

Preached to natives in Vietnamese. Converts and baptizes more than 6,000.

Tay Son Dynasty

1778 - 1802

Period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the end of the figurehead Later Lê dynasty and beginning of the Nguyễn dynasties in the history of Vietnam between 1770 and 1802

Nguyen Dynasty

1802 - 1945

Last ruling family of Vietnam. Nation officially becomes known as Viet Nam. Time of French Colonialism. Nation splits into three parts: Cochinchina (a French colony), Annam, and Tonkin, which were protectorates.

French attack on Vietnam

1858

Charles Rigault de Genouilly attacked Vietnam under the orders of Napoleon III. Stated mission was to stop slaughter of Catholic Missionaries. 14 French gunships and 3,000 men and 300 Filipino troops attacked Vietnam

Treaty of Saigon/French Colonization

1862 AD

Conquest of Cochinchina

1862 - 1874

April 13, 1862: Treaty of Saigon – Emperor Tu Duc of the Nguyen Dynasty ceded Saigon, the island of Poulo Condor, and three southern provinces of what was soon to be Cochinchina to the French. Explored the Mekong river with the hopes of reaching China and its goods, settled for Tonkin instead when realized China could not be reached. Three other provinces added to French ownership

Sino-French War

1884 - 1885

War between China and France to gain control of Tonkin (Northern Vietnam). French victory.

Creation of French Indochina

1887

Annam, Tonkin, and Cochinchina (which together form Vietnam), and the Kingdom of Cambodia come under French rule to create French Indochina.

Democratic Republic of Vietnam

1945

• Viet Minh defeats French
• Vietnam partitioned between North (controlled by the Viet Minh) and the South (controlled by the State of Vietnam)
• South has support of United States, UK, and France

First Indochina War

1946 - 1954

In France.
Vietnamese obtained independence.
Departure of French from Indochina.

Elysee Agreement Signed

1949

Bao Dai and President Vincent Auriol of France sign the Elysee Agreement. As part of the agreement the French pledge to assist in the building of a national anti-Communist army.

US Sends Aid to French

1950

The United States sends $15 million dollars in military aid to the French for the war in Indochina. Included in the aid package is a military mission and military advisors.

Geneva Conference

1954

• French relinquish any claim to territory
• End of French involvement in the region
• Led to serious US commitment in South Vietnam → Vietnam War

French Defeated at Dienbienphu

1954

President Eisenhower outlines the "Domino Effect"

Vietnam War

1954 - 1975

French Leave Vietnam

1956

US Military assumes responsibility. Begin training Vietnamese in South Vietnam

Vietcong Formed

1960

Hanoi forms National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. Diem government dubs them "Vietcong." Fight against South Vietnam/US

US Leave Vietnam

1975

Gerald Ford anticipates the fall of Saigon to Communist forces and removes US forces from Vietnam

Vietnam Invades Cambodia

1976

Determined to end the Pol Pot regime. Failed.

Cambodia

Lang-ya-hsiu

150 C.E.

Earliest documented Cambodian settlement of the Malay Peninsula.

Indian Influence

250 C.E. - 350 C.E.

As a result immigration to the Malay Peninsula, there are serious Indian influences in the beginnings of Cambodian culture

P'an P'an

357 C.E.

Indian influenced society that was ruled by an Indian Brahmin named Kaundinya.

Written Documentation of Cambodian People

400 C.E.

During the 5th century, there are sanskrit mentions of a people inhabiting the Malay Peninsula.

Kaundinya Jayavarman Rule

431 C.E. - 514 C.E.

Rules as a result of bloodline for an incredibly long time, and after his death the empire falters.

Founding of Khmer Empire

790 C.E. - 1431 C.E.

Prince Jayavarman II founds the empire which marks the height of Cambodian innovation and presence in the history of Southeast Asia.

Angkor Period

802 CE - 1431 CE

Angkor Wat

1125 CE

Built by Suryavarman II, this monumental structure is an innovation in engineering and religiosity.

Dark Ages

1400 - 1800

Considered a Dark Age in Cambodian history, this period is largely categorized by loss of territory due to Vietnamese and other Indochine invaders. While there was some economic flourish in the 16th century due to the presence of Portugese and Spanish visitors, this time is primarily seen as a downfall in the history of the country.

French Colonial Rule

1863 - 1953

King Norodom of Cambodia enters into an agreement with the French prior to WWII to ensure protection.

Administration of Sihanouk

1953 - 1970

During the Japanese rule of Cambodia, this ruler implemented several programs to reinforce Cambodian Unity, specifically reverting to Khmer Script, the original Cambodian language.
Under his rule was the beginnings of the Khmer Rouge, and the insurgency that led to Cambodian genocide in the years to come.

Khmer Republic and War

1970 - 1975

-1970 --> Sihanouk ousted
-Cambodian Monarchy is abolished and renamed Khmer Republic
-US Invades Cambodia // Viet Cong presence grows
-Insurgency in Cambodia from Khmer Rouge (CPK) grows more threatening
-1973 --> CPK controls 60% of Cambodia's Territory

Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge Era)

1975 - 1979

-Communist troups on NEw Years day launch an attack on Cambodia and take over the Khmer Republic
- CPK is now in control
-CPK orders all Cambodians to rural areas in attempts to completely restructure society as idealized by Pol Pot

Modern Cambodia

1993 - Present

Philippines

Blade Stone Technology Introduced

5000 BCE

Remnants Found

2000 BCE

Remnants of stone wall found dating back to this time, in province of Ifugao built in this time period.

Mines Found in Philippines

1000 BCE

Mines found in the Philippines suggesting that Filipinos were mining for precious metals before others living in the same region: silver, copper, gold, and iron were discovered there.

Islam is introduced

1301 CE - 1400 CE

Arab traders from Malay and Borneo introduce Islam.

Indo-Malay migrants joined by Chinese traders

1301 - 1400

Arab-taught Makdum arrives in Sulu archipelago

1380 CE

Makdum establishes strong Islamic sphere of influence.

Trading Center Established

1400 CE

Active trading center with Siam (in Thailand) and China is established at this point.

Islam established in Sulu archipelago

1500 CE

After being introduced in the Sulu archipelago, Islam was spread from there to Mindanao.

Manila becomes leading commercial center

1500 - 1600

Manila had become leading commercial center of east asia trade with China, India, and East Indies.

Ferdinand Magellan landed in Cebu

May 1521

Magellan lands in Cebu and claims land for Charles I of Spain and was killed one month later by the local datu there.

Spanish Control Begins

1543

The archipelago is named Las Felipinas in 1543 by Ruy Lopez in Villalobos who followed Magellan to the area. The area was named in honor of Spain's King Phillip II, the crown prince.

Conquest of Filipinos by Spain

1564

Conquest of Filipinos by Spain begins when an expedition from New Spain is commanded by Miguel López de Legaspi. Spanish leadership is established over small, independent communities that previously had no central ruling.

Islam reaches Manila area

1565 CE

Manila fights against Chinese pirates

1574

Manila repulsed attack of Chinese pirate Limahong.

Spanish governor made viceroy

1589

Spanish governor made viceroy ruled with advice of powerful royal audience.

Revolution in Cavite

1896

Revolution begins in province of Cavite and spreads throughout the major islands after executions occurred. Spanish leader Emilio Aguinaldo achieves success. A peace agreement is reached, but is short-lived. Neither side holds up their agreement.

New revolution brewing

1898

New revolution is brewing when Spanish-American war breaks out in 1898.

Philippines transferred from Spain to US

1898

Philippines is transferred from Spain to US as a won territory in the Treaty of Paris in 1898.

US Naval Victory in Manila Bay

May 1898

After US naval victory in Manila Bay on May 1 1898, Commodore George Dewey supplied Aguinaldo with arms and urged him to rally the Filipinos against Spanish.

Aguinaldo leads new revolt against US rule

February 1899

During this time, the Philippines becomes dependent on the American market.

Filipino Democrats came into power

1913

The Jones Act is passed

1916

The Jones Act is passed by US Congress, giving the Islands their first definite independence.

First Aggressive Moves by Japan

1930 - 1931

Japan shows aggression toward US.

Hare-Hawes Cutting Act Passed

1932

Hare-Hawes Cutting Act passed by Congress in 1932 provided complete independence of the islands in 1945 after ten years of self-government under US supervision.