Until the early 8th century, Burma was a strictly Buddhist nation
Considered the greatest ruler in pre-modern Burma, Anoraahta Tsau establishes Buddhism and in doing so reaffirms the monarchy's power.
In an attempt to reaffirm his power and place himself on a godly level, King Tarukpyemeng builds an enormous monuement.
An early example of industry in the far east, Burma was a minor producer of rubber. From here, they entered a more global market once invaded by the English.
As a result of British Colonial rule in Southeast Asia, there was a huge migration to the malay peninsula to increase labor forces. Indians began to form a working minority in Burma.
The western world changes the name to Myanmar in order to give the country a fresh start, so to speak, but that raises controversy regarding whether or not we have that right. Burma is still widely used to signify the territory.
Foreign intervention and exploitation of resources
Buddhists bring two different sects with them > Hinayana and Mahayana.
Hindu religion is spread throughout the area as a result of Indian settlers' arrival.
Sriwijaya, maritime empire, gains control of western Java and part of the Malay Peninsula.
At this period, there is a Hindu kingdom in central Java called Saliandra and the great Buddhist Kingdom of Sriwijaya in south Samara as leading kingdoms.
Famous Buddhist kingdom in Indonesian history is established, called Salienda.
Majapahit Empire is founded and rises to dominate most of Indonesia.
Islam is spread throughout Indonesia by Indian merchants and gains a place in Aceh in northern Sumatra and later throughout the rest of the area.
The mightiest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia's ancient history is said to be the Majapahit Empire under reign of Hayam Wuruk.
Portuguese arrive in Indonesia and there is a huge demand in Europe for spices produced in Indonesia, like nutmeg, ginger, and cinnamon. The Portuguese seize Moluccas, which was the major source of spice production.
In 1512, the Spanish and Portuguese arrive and begin the spread of Christianity in Indonesia.
In 1595, the first Dutch fleet from Holland arrives under Cornelis de Houtman.
In early 17th century the Portuguese lost control to the Dutch.
The Dutch extend their power of Java and Moluccas, though this has little influence on the rest of Indonesia.
The Dutch East India Company is formed to better control trade with Indonesia.
The Dutch government takes over territories lost by Dutch East India Company. In 1806, the British and Dutch go to war and by 1811, British sailed to Batvia. Not long after all Dutch territories in Indonesia had been captured by the British.
Dutch East India Company is weighed down by corruption, goes bankrupt, and finally dissolves in 1800.
Javanese War breaks out in central Java in 1825, led by Prince Disponegoro.
The Javanese War ends in 1830 with a Dutch Victory.
In 1830, the Dutch introduce the Kultuurstelsel or cultural system, where Indonesian farmers were forced to put aside 20 percent of their land to grow crops for export, and were paid only a nominal sum by the Dutch government. Indonesians were forced to grow coffee, indigo, tea, and pepper. Their rice production was reduced.
Dutch switch from Kultuurstelsel to a free market system. The Dutch government's monopoly on sugar and other products ends and private plantations are created. Indonesians are slaves on Dutch plantations.
An ethical policy is introduced and schools are built, with money being spent on health care, sanitation, and irrigation for Indonesia. However, these changes had little actual effect on the lives of Indonesians. Some Indonesians became educated and familiar with Western concepts of liberalism and socialism. Nationalist movements toward independence begin stewing.
The Japanese invade Indonesia and the last Dutch troops surrender on March 8, 1942. Indonesians first saw the Japanese as a liberating force but realized later that they were brutal and exploitative of their resources. They are present in the territory until 1945 when they surrender
On August 17, 1945, Sukarno declares Indonesian independence and becomes first president of the country with Hatta as the first vice president.
Dutch Arrive Again
In November of 1946, the Dutch arrive again. The Dutch and Indonesians sign the Linggajati agreement which specified that the republic would join a federal union with Holland in 1949. Holland recognized the republic in Java and Sumatra, but claimed the rest of Indonesia.
The Dutch attempt to re-conquer
By December of 1948, the Dutch were looking to reclaim Indonesia, but Indonesians turned to guerrilla warfare and the Dutch were once again faced with strong condemnation from the US powers and could not win the war.
Dutch agree to recognize Indonesian independence
On November 2, 1949 the Dutch finally agree to recognize Indonesian independence and withdraw their troops in December.
Though independent Indonesia was at first a parliamentary democracy, in February of 1957, President Sukarno introduces a new political system - guided democracy. The power or parliament was increased. His opponents formed a separate "parliament" called the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PRRC). The army remained loyal to Sukarno and he was able to stay in power.
Suharto rules as a dictator from 1966 to 1998. Suharto held elections every five years but democracy was a sham. He brought stability and the economy healed. After 1973, Indonesia benefitted from the high price of oil. Agriculture became more productive and the economy more successful. However, most Indonesians remained poor.
Indonesia was hit by riots and Suharto resigned in May of 1998. Democracy was back and elections were held in 1999.
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyno is elected President in 2004 and by the beginning of the 21st century, the Indonesian economy was fully recovered. By 2007, it grew by 6% per year.
The start of the Vietnamese nation.
Start of the Van Lang Kingdom - the first Kingdom of Vietnam.
Van Lang Kingdom had a professional administrative class assisting the rulers.
Chinese attempted to introduce Chinese literature, arts, language, and agricultural techniques to Vietnam. The Viet resisted until the domination ended with the Trung Sisters' revolt.
Famous Vietnamese revolt led by the Trung sisters, both widows of local aristocrats. The revolt was successful and the older sister, Trung, Trac, became ruler of an independent state for 3 years
Ma Yuan created a Chinese style administration of three prefectures and fifty-six districts ruled by scholar-officials sent by the Han court.
Van Xuan as ruler under the Vietnamese Ly Dynasty.
Period of strong political resistance. Ly Bi became emperor in 543 and his leadership lasted 50 years after his death in 547.
Two Chinese imperial dynasties:
602-618: Sui Dynasty under three districts in the Red River Delta.
618-905: Tang Dynasty
Vietnam proclaimed independence from China. Many attempts by the Chinese to reestablish power in Vietnam.
Dinh Bo Linh (a mandarin) created the first unified empire of Vietnam and renamed the country Dai Co Viet. Won first recognition of Vietnam as a state independent of China. Worried about outside invasions, he appointed military personnel to important positions.
Lê Long Đĩnh, the last of the three rulers of the Early Le Dynasty was immensely hated and treated the population very poorly. People of Vietnam plotted to install a new ruler, which marked the end of the Early Le Dynasty.
First of the great Vietnamese Dynasties. Established by Ly Thai To in the Red River Delta. The kingdom later became known as Dai Viet.
Local lords were replaced by an institution of training for civil Mandarin administrators as well as an academy of learning were established. Created a universal military service, which kept the Chinese from invading Champa for two centuries. Developed a system of dykes and canals to prevent summer flooding and winter drought, resulting in one of the most fertile rice-growing areas of the world. Economy thrived - became a strong force in Southeast Asia. Promoted the arts and literature.
Defeated Mongol armies of Kublai Kahn, which tried to reintegrate Vietnam back into the Chinese empire. Golden age for art, culture, science, and education.
Wanted to gain control of the territory to add to their reign over most of Eurasia. Committed mass murder. Resulted in Vietnamese forces massacred Uriyankhadai's troops
Ends in Vietnamese victory
Ho Quy Ly - Emperor. Descendants of the Tran Dynasty were uneasy with the Ho Dynasty. Civil unrest allowed the Ming to conquer Dai Viet with the help of Tran Dynasty sympathizers. The Ho tried to regain China's goodwill, but they refused to offer it. Went to war with the Ming. Ming exploited Vietnam's natural resources and sent goods, including the written history of Vietnam until the Tran Dynasty, back to Beijing. Fueled the Viet Rebellion
Ruled by the Ming dynasty. Instilled Chinese culture and language into the government and culture of Vietnam.
Longest-ruling Dynasty of Vietnam.
Rebel leader, Le Loi, drives out Chinese from Annam and founds Le Dynasty.
Civil war over control of the government (power over 14-year-old Emperor). Split between North and South Vietnam.
European missionaries and merchants infiltrating Vietnamese court and politics.
Preached to natives in Vietnamese. Converts and baptizes more than 6,000.
Period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the end of the figurehead Later Lê dynasty and beginning of the Nguyễn dynasties in the history of Vietnam between 1770 and 1802
Last ruling family of Vietnam. Nation officially becomes known as Viet Nam. Time of French Colonialism. Nation splits into three parts: Cochinchina (a French colony), Annam, and Tonkin, which were protectorates.
Charles Rigault de Genouilly attacked Vietnam under the orders of Napoleon III. Stated mission was to stop slaughter of Catholic Missionaries. 14 French gunships and 3,000 men and 300 Filipino troops attacked Vietnam
April 13, 1862: Treaty of Saigon – Emperor Tu Duc of the Nguyen Dynasty ceded Saigon, the island of Poulo Condor, and three southern provinces of what was soon to be Cochinchina to the French. Explored the Mekong river with the hopes of reaching China and its goods, settled for Tonkin instead when realized China could not be reached. Three other provinces added to French ownership
War between China and France to gain control of Tonkin (Northern Vietnam). French victory.
Annam, Tonkin, and Cochinchina (which together form Vietnam), and the Kingdom of Cambodia come under French rule to create French Indochina.
• Viet Minh defeats French
• Vietnam partitioned between North (controlled by the Viet Minh) and the South (controlled by the State of Vietnam)
• South has support of United States, UK, and France
Vietnamese obtained independence.
Departure of French from Indochina.
Bao Dai and President Vincent Auriol of France sign the Elysee Agreement. As part of the agreement the French pledge to assist in the building of a national anti-Communist army.
The United States sends $15 million dollars in military aid to the French for the war in Indochina. Included in the aid package is a military mission and military advisors.
• French relinquish any claim to territory
• End of French involvement in the region
• Led to serious US commitment in South Vietnam → Vietnam War
President Eisenhower outlines the "Domino Effect"
US Military assumes responsibility. Begin training Vietnamese in South Vietnam
Hanoi forms National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. Diem government dubs them "Vietcong." Fight against South Vietnam/US
Gerald Ford anticipates the fall of Saigon to Communist forces and removes US forces from Vietnam
Determined to end the Pol Pot regime. Failed.
Earliest documented Cambodian settlement of the Malay Peninsula.
As a result immigration to the Malay Peninsula, there are serious Indian influences in the beginnings of Cambodian culture
Indian influenced society that was ruled by an Indian Brahmin named Kaundinya.
During the 5th century, there are sanskrit mentions of a people inhabiting the Malay Peninsula.
Rules as a result of bloodline for an incredibly long time, and after his death the empire falters.
Prince Jayavarman II founds the empire which marks the height of Cambodian innovation and presence in the history of Southeast Asia.
Built by Suryavarman II, this monumental structure is an innovation in engineering and religiosity.
Considered a Dark Age in Cambodian history, this period is largely categorized by loss of territory due to Vietnamese and other Indochine invaders. While there was some economic flourish in the 16th century due to the presence of Portugese and Spanish visitors, this time is primarily seen as a downfall in the history of the country.
King Norodom of Cambodia enters into an agreement with the French prior to WWII to ensure protection.
During the Japanese rule of Cambodia, this ruler implemented several programs to reinforce Cambodian Unity, specifically reverting to Khmer Script, the original Cambodian language.
Under his rule was the beginnings of the Khmer Rouge, and the insurgency that led to Cambodian genocide in the years to come.
-1970 --> Sihanouk ousted
-Cambodian Monarchy is abolished and renamed Khmer Republic
-US Invades Cambodia // Viet Cong presence grows
-Insurgency in Cambodia from Khmer Rouge (CPK) grows more threatening
-1973 --> CPK controls 60% of Cambodia's Territory
-Communist troups on NEw Years day launch an attack on Cambodia and take over the Khmer Republic
- CPK is now in control
-CPK orders all Cambodians to rural areas in attempts to completely restructure society as idealized by Pol Pot
Remnants of stone wall found dating back to this time, in province of Ifugao built in this time period.
Mines found in the Philippines suggesting that Filipinos were mining for precious metals before others living in the same region: silver, copper, gold, and iron were discovered there.
Arab traders from Malay and Borneo introduce Islam.
Makdum establishes strong Islamic sphere of influence.
Active trading center with Siam (in Thailand) and China is established at this point.
After being introduced in the Sulu archipelago, Islam was spread from there to Mindanao.
Manila had become leading commercial center of east asia trade with China, India, and East Indies.
Magellan lands in Cebu and claims land for Charles I of Spain and was killed one month later by the local datu there.
The archipelago is named Las Felipinas in 1543 by Ruy Lopez in Villalobos who followed Magellan to the area. The area was named in honor of Spain's King Phillip II, the crown prince.
Conquest of Filipinos by Spain begins when an expedition from New Spain is commanded by Miguel López de Legaspi. Spanish leadership is established over small, independent communities that previously had no central ruling.
Manila repulsed attack of Chinese pirate Limahong.
Spanish governor made viceroy ruled with advice of powerful royal audience.
Revolution begins in province of Cavite and spreads throughout the major islands after executions occurred. Spanish leader Emilio Aguinaldo achieves success. A peace agreement is reached, but is short-lived. Neither side holds up their agreement.
New revolution is brewing when Spanish-American war breaks out in 1898.
Philippines is transferred from Spain to US as a won territory in the Treaty of Paris in 1898.
After US naval victory in Manila Bay on May 1 1898, Commodore George Dewey supplied Aguinaldo with arms and urged him to rally the Filipinos against Spanish.
During this time, the Philippines becomes dependent on the American market.
The Jones Act is passed by US Congress, giving the Islands their first definite independence.
Japan shows aggression toward US.
Hare-Hawes Cutting Act passed by Congress in 1932 provided complete independence of the islands in 1945 after ten years of self-government under US supervision.