The beginning of forced labor of enslaved Africans in the U.S. is contested.
The occupation of the South by U.S. troops following the Civil War, ending with the Compromise of 1877
The lowest point of American race relations, characterized by violent anti-black racism
MumBet, an enslaved Massachusetts woman, filed and won a lawsuit for her freedom citing the 1780 Massachusetts State Constitution
positioned the condition of slavery not in geography, but in the body by allowing/requiring the capture and return of escaped enslaved people throughout U.S. territory
called for an end to slavery in all seceded states; not anti-slavery but anti-secession
restricted the freedom of black people in the South following emancipation by instituting vagrancy laws and encouraging labor systems based on low wages and debt peonage
abolished slavery except for punishment for a crime
granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States and guaranteed all citizens “equal protection of the laws”
legal decisions which provided protection for and contributed to the formation of the Ku Klux Klan
resulted in the U.S. pulling troops from the South and ending the Reconstruction era
upheld the constitutionality of segregation in public spaces under the doctrine "separate but equal"
first published book by a black woman in colonial America